Weyl's Formula as the Brion Theorem for Gelfand-Tsetlin Polytopes
The unitary group U(N) acts by conjugations on the space H(N) of NxN Hermitian matrices, and every orbit of this action carries a unique invariant probability measure called an orbital measure. Consider the projection of the space H(N) onto the real line assigning to an Hermitian matrix its (1,1)-entry. Under this projection, the density of the pushforward of a generic orbital measure is a spline function with N knots. This fact was pointed out by Andrei Okounkov in 1996, and the goal of the paper is to propose a multidimensional generalization. Namely, it turns out that if instead of the (1,1)-entry we cut out the upper left matrix corner of arbitrary size KxK, where K=2,...,N-1, then the pushforward of a generic orbital measure is still computable: its density is given by a KxK determinant composed from one-dimensional splines. The result can also be reformulated in terms of projections of the Gelfand--Tsetlin polytopes.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.