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Working paper

Arithmetic of 3-valent graphs and equidissections of flat surfaces

Rudenko D.
Our main object of study is a 3−valent graph with a vector function on its edges. The function assignes to an edge a pair of 2−adic integer numbers and satisfies additional condition: the sum of its values on three edges, terminating in the same vertex, is equal to 0. For each vertex of the graph three vectors corresponding to these edges generate a lattice over the ring of 2−adic integers. In this paper we study the restrictions, imposed on these lattices by the combinatorics of the graph. As an application we obtain the following fact: a rational balanced polygon cannot be cut into an odd number of triangles of equal areas. First result of this type was obtained by Paul Monsky in 1970. He proved that a square cannot be cut into an odd number of triangles of equal areas. In 2000 Sherman Stein conjectured that the same holds for any balanced polygon. We prove this conjecture in the case, when coordinates of all vertices of the cut are rational numbers.