Youth unemployment in Italy and Russia: Aggregate trends and the role of individual determinants
This book focuses on the questions of how territorial differences in productivity levels and unemployment rates arise in the first place and why territorial differences in labor market performance persist over time. Unemployment divergence and unemployment club convergence have been touched on in a large number of works and have recently also been studied using spatial econometric analysis. In this book we aim to develop the debate to include several important new topics, such as: the reasons why structural changes in some sectors cause slumps in some regions but not in others; the extent to which agglomeration factors explain regional imbalances; the degree of convergence / divergence across EU countries and regions; the role of labor mobility in reducing / increasing regional labor market imbalances; the impact of EU and country-level regional policy in stimulating convergence; and the (unsatisfactory) role of active labor market policy in stimulating labor supply in the weakest economic areas.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
This chapter is devoted to the investigation of spatial spillover effects of the regional unem- ployment in Germany. Due to historical reasons the differences between eastern and western regions of Germany persist over time. We explore the differences in the determinants of the re- gional unemployment as well as the differences in spatial effects by estimating spatial models. We use panel data for 407 out of 413 German regions (using the NUTS III regional structure) for 2001 through 2009. In order to account for possible spatial interactions between regions, we use a spatial weighting matrix of inverse distances. We estimate static and dynamic models by the maximum likelihood estimation approach, developed by Anselin (1988) specifically for spatial models and elaborated by Lee and Yu (2010a), Lee and Yu (2010b). We reveal that the unemployment in western regions is more of disequilibrium nature, while the unemployment in eastern regions is more of equilibrium nature. Using System-GMM approach we estimate the extended specification of the dynamic model and find that the unemployment in eastern regions affects both the unemployment in western and eastern regions of Germany, whereas the unemployment in western regions has an impact only on other western regions.
The paper assesses factors of regional unemployment and spatial spillover effects in Germany. Using panel data for 407 out of 413 German regions for 2001 through 2009, we explore differences between eastern and western regions in spatial effects. We estimate static and dynamic spatial models by the maximum likelihood estimation approach, elaborated by Lee and Yu (2010). In order to account for possible spatial interactions between regions, we use a spatial weights matrix of inverse distances in the regressions. We base our analysis on a combined set of factors according to equilibrium and disequilibrium views of regional unemployment variance. We find that the unemployment is of both equilibrium and disequilibrium nature. By extending the specification of the dynamic model, we find that the unemployment in eastern regions of Germany affects both the unemployment in western and eastern regions, whereas the unemployment in western regions of Germany has an impact only on other western regions.
Youth unemployment and joblessness are major issues for national governments and international organizations across the globe. In this respect, the school-to-work transition challenge is increasingly raising the interest of companies, education and training institutions, families and young people themselves, who are often involved in precarious and illegal forms of employment worldwide. In the field of industrial and labour relations, the school-to-work perspective seems particularly suitable for policy formulation and assessment: the broad and complex range of tools, strategies and policies for enabling youth training and their access to the labour market is deserving of a closer analysis at an international level in a time when jobless recovery threatens national economies. In this connection, this volume of the "Adapt Labour Studies Book-Series" has been set up with a view for achieving a better understanding of the causes, consequences and possible responses to the issue in a global dimension through an interdisciplinary and comparative approach.
The size and persistence of youth unemployment has become unacceptable in some European countries, particularly in Southern Europe. Stagnation in labour productivity, on the other hand, goes back to the 1990s and even worsened after the burst of the crisis. A further evidence is that labour market reforms in many countries introduced, over the past twenty years, a set of newly designed job contracts that allowed the use of temporary work. We describe these phenomena and countries heterogeneity in four dimensions: labour productivity, youth unemployment, EPL (Employment Protection Legislation) and temporary work, and their dynamics.
The purpose of this study is to identify the common and different determinants of youth unemployment in Eastern and Western regions of Russia, especially searching for the existence of spatial effects. We tested two main hypotheses. The first hypothesis consists in the existence of a difference between the processes occurring within the Western and Eastern regions and an asymmetry of the processes of influence of Western and Eastern regions on each other. Our second hypothesis is based on the differences in the determinants of youth unemployment in the Eastern and Western parts of Russia. To test these hypotheses, dynamic panel models were estimated by the Arellano–Bond method. These models included four boundary weighted matrices (west-west, east-east, west-east, east-west) and four types of explanatory variables: (i) variables characterising the demographic situation in a region; (ii) variables on the migration processes in a region; (iii) variables characterising the economic situation in a region; and (iv) variables on the export-import activity of a region. Although we were searching for structural determinants of youth unemployment and for spatial effects in East and West Russia, we also investigated the effect of the 2008-09 financial crisis. The main policy implications of the econometric results have been briefly considered in the final section.
This paper focuses on the determinants of the labor market situation of young people in developed countries and the developing world, with a particular emphasis on the role of vocational training and education policies. We highlight the role of demographic factors, economic growth and labor market institutions in explaining young people's transition into work. Subsequently, we assess differences between the setup and functioning of the vocational education and training policies across major world regions as an important driver of differential labor market situation of youth. Based on our analysis, we argue in favor of vocational education and training systems combining work experience and general education and provide some policy recommendations regarding the implementation of education and training systems adapted to a country's economic and institutional context.