The Stability Of The Value Typology Of Europeans: Testing Invariance With Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis
Contents foreword Research on values Chapter 1: Introduction and explanation of the term 'values' Chapter 2: The theory of human values according to Shalom H. Schwartz and its relevance for the study of the development of values in childhood and adolescence Chapter 3: Values and Behaviors The research of value development Chapter 4: How to research values in childhood? A question of diagnostics Chapter 5: How do values evolve? Research designs and results from selected subject areas Chapter 6: Values in the family - conveying values through parenting goals and values Chapter 7: Values development and change of values in children - wishes for research Educational approaches to value formation Chapter 8: Storytelling - Goals and content of a school value building project Chapter 9: Experiencing values - an example of conveying values through experiential project work in the fields of theater and outdoor
The present article is devoted to a comparison of today’s values of Russians with those of people living in the other countries of Europe. Many publications have broadly discussed the question of similarities and differences in the cultural and psychological characteristics of Russians and other Europeans, and these discussions represent part of a broader polemic concerning the paths of Russia’s development. New opportunities to make well-founded comparisons between the populations of Russia and other European countries have emerged because of our country’s participation in the European Social Survey (ESS), a largescale international project in which all of the participants have to work in accordance with strict methodological requirements.1 Russia joined this international project in the third round. Surveys in this round have been carried out in twenty-five European countries; they were launched in September 2006 and completed at the beginning of 2007. In Russia the survey took place in September 2006–January 2007, with 2,437 respondents taking part.
Three dimensions of subordinate-supervisor relations (affective attachment, deference to supervisor, and personal-life inclusion) that had been found by Chen et al. (2009) to be characteristic of a guanxi relationship between subordinates and their supervisors in China were surveyed in Taiwan, Singapore and six non-Chinese cultural contexts. The affective attachment and deference subscales demonstrated full metric invariance whereas the personal-life inclusion subscale was found to have partial metric invariance across all eight samples. Structural equation modelling revealed that the affective attachment dimension had a cross-nationally invariant positive relationship to affective organizational commitment and a negative relationship to turnover intention. The deference to the supervisor dimension had invariant positive relationships with both affective and normative organizational commitment. The personal-life inclusion dimension was unrelated to all outcomes. These results indicate the relevance of aspects of guanxi to superior-subordinate relations in non-Chinese cultures. Studies of indigenous concepts can contribute to a broader understanding of organizational behavior.
The basic values of the Russian population and the population of thirty-one European countries were compared with data obtained by Schwartz Questionnaire embedded into the fourth round of the European Social Survey. Conclusions about similarities and differences of basic human values between Russia and other European countries confirm the thesis that Russia is a country which shares with the other world the general logic of cultural and social development and which has a lot in common with the countries of similar economic level and recent political history. In most value comparisons Russia appeared to be closer to the Post-Communist and to the Mediterranean countries than to Western European or Nordic countries.
The fact that the Russians are less committed than most Europeans to the values of caring, tolerance, equality and ecology and conversely more than most Europeans committed to the competitive "zero- sum” values of personal success, wealth and power confirms the validity of current moral criticism of mass values and morals in Russia. The other disturbing fact is the relatively low commitment of Russians to the values of Openness to Change and conversely a strong focus on Conservation. So the Russian basic values create a cultural barrier to the development of innovative economy and to the society development as a whole.
Thanks to the shift from the country to an individual and group level of analysis we challenge the notion of the "average Russian" and demonstrate that the Russian value majority consists of two subtypes. Russia has the sizable value minority also and its members share the values atypical for most of the Russians. Two value minorities which embrace 19% of Russian population are more committed to values of Openness and Self-Transcendence than the rest of the Russian population. These value groups are typical for the European countries with more prosperous and happy populations and we can hypothesize that in Russia they are resource groups for the country advancement also.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.