The purpose of of this study is to develop the instrument to measure the effectiveness of public investment in R & D and make timely adjustments to the scientific and technical policy. This will contribute to the growth of fundamental results, patents as well as their commercialization and innovative development of the the overall economy. The article assesses the effectiveness of public investment in research and technological development (RTD), including attracted extrabudgetary funds, on the basis of the authors' methodology for assessing the efficiency of public spending on RTD projects. The main distributors of state budget funds in Russia are the Federal Executive Bodies (FEB). The proposed tool allows first to evaluate the effectiveness of public expenditure on RTD in general, though it does not involve matching FEB among themselves, but only evaluates their work in promoting the development of their assigned research areas in dynamics. This method sets the general rules for evaluation of the effectiveness of state financial support of RTD, defines the key indicators reflecting the performance of such support and the use of science as a tool for ensuring the achievement of indicators and socio-economic development of the state.
This article covers Research and Development policy of the European Union. In particular, the core issue of this policy – knowledge and its objective form IPR. Article is provided with analysis of the basic foreign doctrinal works in this field. It is shown how development of the economic theory formed the need to move forward to the knowledge based economy. It is shown how this economic changes shifted legal framework of R&D policy of the European Union towards European Research Area and Horizon 2020.
This article gives an overview of the historical and economical factors that lead to the enlargement of the European Union competence in the field of research and development. Evolution of the economic theory and transition to exogenous model of economic growth increased the role of public involvement. This thesis is supported by basic doctrinal works in this filed. Main sources of the European Union competence are analyzed as well. This includes Treaties, Regulations and Directives and some relevant (to authors point of view) ECJ decisions.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.