The purpose of of this study is to develop the instrument to measure the effectiveness of public investment in R & D and make timely adjustments to the scientific and technical policy. This will contribute to the growth of fundamental results, patents as well as their commercialization and innovative development of the the overall economy. The article assesses the effectiveness of public investment in research and technological development (RTD), including attracted extrabudgetary funds, on the basis of the authors' methodology for assessing the efficiency of public spending on RTD projects. The main distributors of state budget funds in Russia are the Federal Executive Bodies (FEB). The proposed tool allows first to evaluate the effectiveness of public expenditure on RTD in general, though it does not involve matching FEB among themselves, but only evaluates their work in promoting the development of their assigned research areas in dynamics. This method sets the general rules for evaluation of the effectiveness of state financial support of RTD, defines the key indicators reflecting the performance of such support and the use of science as a tool for ensuring the achievement of indicators and socio-economic development of the state.
This article covers Research and Development policy of the European Union. In particular, the core issue of this policy – knowledge and its objective form IPR. Article is provided with analysis of the basic foreign doctrinal works in this field. It is shown how development of the economic theory formed the need to move forward to the knowledge based economy. It is shown how this economic changes shifted legal framework of R&D policy of the European Union towards European Research Area and Horizon 2020.
This article gives an overview of the historical and economical factors that lead to the enlargement of the European Union competence in the field of research and development. Evolution of the economic theory and transition to exogenous model of economic growth increased the role of public involvement. This thesis is supported by basic doctrinal works in this filed. Main sources of the European Union competence are analyzed as well. This includes Treaties, Regulations and Directives and some relevant (to authors point of view) ECJ decisions.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.