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Working paper

Ontological Argument: Two-Dimensional Version

The ontological argument has been reintroduced into the area of analytical metaphysics in 20th century due to the development of modal logic and possible worlds semantics. However, there are few attempts to approach this argument with two-dimensional possible worlds framework. The present paper provides a new two-dimensional interpretation of Anselm's proof in terms of modal logic with an actuality operator (AML). It is argued that the standard modal explications of Anselm’s enigmatic concept “greater” and its connection with the concept of “actuality” have some essential shortcomings compared with the two-dimensional approach.