American and Russian 'Victory' Discourse: A Conflict of Cultures
The paper focuses on the ways an abstract quality – mental characteristics of human beings – is conceptualized in English. The ways of conceptualization are revealed through the etymological analysis of words and presented diachronically starting from Old English. In particular, it is shown that mental qualities are interpreted through the following metaphorical concepts: LIGHT, DARKNESS, MOTION, CONTAINER, ACQUISITION and some other ones. All the revealed metaphorical concepts belong to the field of archetypical human concepts.
The article presents the results of a constructionist study into the rhetoric used by the Federal Drug Control Service of Russia (FDCS) in their efforts to control the flow of illegal drugs. Interactionist and constructionist studies of social problems demonstrate that the leaders and press-services of law enforcement organizations usually engage in a subtle rhetorical game, highlighting both the gravity of "their" problem, and, simultaneously, the success of their actions. This research considers the question of how the FDCS takes on the challenge of this "double task", which it does through various rhetorical devices. Also under consideration is how the service combines a demonstration of the grave seriousness, with reminders of their efficacy as an agency. This study analyzed over 70 speeches delivered by head of the FDCS, Viktor Ivanov, from January, 2013 till December, 2014. The use of a strict constructionist approach from the school of Peter Ibarra and John Kitsuse revealed the key features of agency’s rhetoric: including metaphorical parallels with natural disasters, playing around with big numbers and presenting drugs as a "mega-problem" breeding crime, terrorism, extremism and piracy. These features correspond to the rhetoric of calamity. FDCS has created a special vocabulary which underlines the catastrophic character of the problem. Phrases such as "narco-tsunami", "narco volcano", "heroin volcano", "number one threat for Russia" and "a giant army of drug users" give an indication of the style employed. However, the necessity to demonstrate the efficacy of the federal service demands the transformation of this rhetorical idiom into the one of "controlled calamity" which presents the situation as catastrophic but at the same time successfully kept under control. This rhetoric constitutes the basis for the demands to increase financing and authority of the FDCS, encouraging an expansion of their funding and influence into areas such as drugs rehabilitation programmes.
The article is devoted to a critically important, in the author’s opinion, issue of the ethical regulation of public servants’ o^ cial behavior. He considers the complex of ethical-legal mechanisms as one of the most eb ective ways in order to correct the obviously unsatisfactory current situation of public life in this c eld. As long as it is not only Russia’s trouble and many other countries pay considerable attention to ethical aspects, the author re] ects the situation in the frames of a broader theoretical position and also addresses the international experience. In particular, he gives much attention to Canada, where the ethical regulation of public service is developed su^ ciently well and the country has achieved serious success in this respect. Ethical codes are considered as «moral navigators» in the contemporary complicated world, because vitality and legitimity of a political system much depends on whether political institutions and behavior of high rank public o^ cials correspond to the prevailed public values and ideals, accord with the norms and standards of public morality, or they do not. A degree of public trust to holders of public posts depends critically on it. \ e administrative ethical codes 31 Obolonsky Alexander V. Ethics and responsibility of dib erent levels and the «ethical infrastructure» that provide their fulc llment have been thoroughly analyzed. Special attention is paid to the role of the leader, to moral self-restrictions of public servants and to exercising control over them. \ e balance between moral and legal norms has been considered in details, as well as the modern situation of Russia in this c eld.