It is well known that Poincarétype inequalities on Riemannian manifolds with measure satisfying the generalized Bakry–Émery condition can be obtained by using the Bochner–Lichnerowicz–Weitzenböck formula. In the case of manifolds with boundary, a suitable generalization is Reilly’s formula. New Poincaré type inequalities for manifolds with measure are obtained by systematically using this formula combined with various conditions on the boundary of the manifold and boundary conditions for elliptic equations. Among other results, a generalization of Colesanti’s inequality, proved earlier in Euclidean space, is presented. It implies a generalization of Brunn–Minkowskitype inequalities for manifolds. A new evolution equation for surfaces on Riemannian manifolds is studied, which determines the Minkowski addition of convex sets in the Euclidean case. The proposed approach covers a large class of convex measures, including measures with heavy tails, which correspond to negative analytic dimension.
The Lp-Brunn-Minkowski theory for p≥1, proposed by Firey and developed by Lutwak in the 90's, replaces the Minkowski addition of convex sets by its Lp counterpart, in which the support functions are added in Lp-norm. Recently, Böröczky, Lutwak, Yang and Zhang have proposed to extend this theory further to encompass the range p∈[0,1). In particular, they conjectured an Lp-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for origin-symmetric convex bodies in that range, which constitutes a strengthening of the classical Brunn-Minkowski inequality. Our main result confirms this conjecture locally for all (smooth) origin-symmetric convex bodies in Rn and p∈[1−cn3/2,1). In addition, we confirm the local log-Brunn--Minkowski conjecture (the case p=0) for small-enough C2-perturbations of the unit-ball of ℓnq for q≥2, when the dimension n is sufficiently large, as well as for the cube, which we show is the conjectural extremal case. For unit-balls of ℓnq with q∈[1,2), we confirm an analogous result for p=c∈(0,1), a universal constant. It turns out that the local version of these conjectures is equivalent to a minimization problem for a spectral-gap parameter associated with a certain differential operator, introduced by Hilbert (under different normalization) in his proof of the Brunn-Minkowski inequality. As applications, we obtain local uniqueness results in the even Lp-Minkowski problem, as well as improved stability estimates in the Brunn-Minkowski and anisotropic isoperimetric inequalities.
A sharp Poincaré-type inequality is derived for the restriction of the Gaussian measure on the boundary of a convex set. In particular, it implies a Gaussian mean-curvature inequality and a Gaussian iso-second-variation inequality. The new inequality is nothing but an infinitesimal equivalent form of Ehrhard’s inequality for the Gaussian measure. While Ehrhard’s inequality does not extend to general CD(1, ∞) measures, we formulate a sufficient condition for the validity of Ehrhard-type inequalities for general measures on RnRn via a certain property of an associated Neumann-to-Dirichlet operator.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.