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Regular version of the site

Book chapter

Миры "возможного" - от Бытия к Ничто

С. 277-299.

This work is devoted to the development of philosophical comprehension concerning a one specific problem, which was aroused as an aporia within Eleatic philosophy. This aporia covers the following problem. Being cannot occur from Nothingness, but it is also cannot occur from Being itself (according to Parmenides’s formula: "what is, is" and "what is not, cannot be"). Philosophy reduced this paradox by saying that ontology is divided into two levels – Being in actum and Being in potentio. As a result Being in potentio was considered as primary order level of Being than Being in potentio. This attitude was noticeably changed in Christianity because of reality of Nothingness, which idea comes from Old Statement. After that in 17-th century Descartes held that Nothingness is a pure possibility, which means that it is not precede to Being in actum. In order to reach this intellectual goal he had to consider Nothingness as a part of Epistemology, but not Ontology. In other words he asserted that the only cause of False in our World is the Cogito itself, but not real Nothingness. It meant also that God is not omnipotent as well as he is not omniscient. It caused diminishing of influence of Creationism as an idea. Moreover method of Descartes caused spreading of subjectivism or, in other terms, spreading the Nothingness in all fields of experience. As a result a two levels ontology model was annulled and the Being in actum turned the only object of intentionality. On the other hand the intentionality (or intentional consciousness) started to be regarded as the same as the Nothingness itself. In Sartre’s and Wittgenstein’s theories the possibility (potentio) is restricted as sphere of the Nothingness. It doesn’t have any causal relations with the Being, but it has source within cogito. The possibility, therefore, is not incarnated in the Being, but remains as a part of Nothingness, so the Being could be.