(In)Tolerance in the Black Sea Region
Interpreting tolerance as an attitude towards prejudiced groups, the current chapter examines moral and social (in)tolerance in the eight countries clustered in four groups: two European countries of the former USSR (Russia and Ukraine), three Caucasian countries of the former USSR (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), two European countries from the Communist camp (Bulgaria and Romania), and Islamic Turkey. Our investigation is based on the combined longitudinal data of the World Values Survey and the European Values Study after the collapse of the USSR until the most recent wave. It covers three aspects of tolerance: difference in prejudice levels, time trends, and generational shifts according to modernization theory of R. Inglehart and C. Welzel. Taking into account historical, cultural and religious background, the hypothesis was to detect more similarity within clusters and less similarity between them. However, our results contradict this expectation. Our analysis shows that the Black Sea region in general is rather diverse in terms of moral tolerance, measured through acceptance of homosexuals as possible neighbors and more homogeneous in terms of social tolerance measured through acceptance of people of another race.