Нейрофизиологические корреляты восприятия глаголов физического действия и инструментальных глаголов: данные функциональной магнитно-резонансной томографии
The article deals with the linguistic mechanism of functioning of verbal metonymy functioning in fictional discourse which is based on the functional categorization. In the metonymical using re-categorization of the verbs is taking place, that is, the change of their original system value. In some cases there is the actualization of the system categorial meaning while changing the values of the categorical boundaries of the situation denoted by the verb.
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We analyzed brain functional connectivity using data from a task-based fMRI study of explicit categorization of neutral and emotional faces. During the perception of emotional faces, the correlation of BOLD signal in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) with other regions of the core face system increased, as compared to neutral faces. Conversely, during the perception of neutral faces, we found an increased correlation of STS and other core face system regions with brain areas outside the core system. The functional connectivity of STS shows lateralization due to the presence or absence of emotional expression. The obtained results support the key role of STS in facial expression recognition.
Investigations of the neural correlates of face recognition have typically used old/new paradigms where subjects learn to recognize new faces or identify famous faces. Familiar faces, however, include one's own face, partner's and parents' faces. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of these personally familiar faces. Ten participants were presented with photographs of own, partner, parents, famous and unfamiliar faces and responded to a distinct target. Whole brain, two regions of interest (fusiform gyrus and cingulate gyrus), and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Compared with baseline, all familiar faces activated the fusiform gyrus; own faces also activated occipital regions and the precuneus; partner faces activated similar areas, but in addition, the parahippocampal gyrus, middle superior temporal gyri and middle frontal gyrus. Compared with unfamiliar faces, only personally familiar faces activated the cingulate gyrus and the extent of activation varied with face category. Partner faces also activated the insula, amygdala and thalamus. Regions of interest analyses and laterality indices showed anatomical distinctions of processing the personally familiar faces within the fusiform and cingulate gyri. Famous faces were right lateralized whereas personally familiar faces, particularly partner and own faces, elicited bilateral activations. Regression analyses show experiential predictors modulated with neural activity related to own and partner faces. Thus, personally familiar faces activated the core visual areas and extended frontal regions, related to semantic and person knowledge and the extent and areas of activation varied with face type.
The study of cerebral organization of usage of verbs and nouns was carried out by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of strategy of word actualization (verbs and nouns extraction on paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections) and the level of automation of these processes on the pattern of cerebral cortex activation was shown.
Key characteristics of non-fluent (Broca, motor) aphasia are, among others, verb finding difficulties and effortful speech output. These characteristics are related to different levels of speech production (lexical retrieval and motor execution). This study was aimed at identifying normative brain activation related to verb production in healthy individuals, as well as patterns of its reorganization depending on the locus of the linguistic deficit in patients with non-fluent aphasia.
We investigated brain organization of action naming and its relation to brain damage localization and naming scores in patients with aphasia. Nineteen healthy people and 6 individuals with aphasia participated in an fMRI experiment. They had to name a picture of an action with a single verb or to utter a pseudo-verb in response to a digitally distorted picture. Patients with the damage to the left frontal areas, where normative activation was found in the healthy group, had the lowest naming scores. Higher naming scores in individuals with aphasia was found related to a generalized activation in the left hemisphere.