Проблемы оценки бизнес проектов
The textbook includes texts and tests for preparing and assessing the knowledge of equally school chilldren and students in writing
grammar tests on Russian Grammar.
With the development of market economy, the role of pricing policies and pricing methods used immeasurably . Control rejection of prices in the hope of his spontaneous action or unfounded use of the price mechanism acts on the financial and economic results of the organizations for the enterprise turns more or less negative consequences.
Enterprise activity in a market economy needs more detailed study of the theory of prices , their impact on the production and unwind , in particular, its intensification , the development of specific measures to improve the methods of pricing the various industry sectors in the current conditions in Russia .
Urgent problem in pricing and price regulation is currently the industry-specific accounting of goods and services , contributing to the high growth of intensification of production and improve the financial and economic results of enterprises. Studying the results of research in the oil industry shows
1. From an economic point of view the process of pricing considered by authors such as: Dzh.M.Keyns . Paul Samuelson , EJ Dolan N.D.Kondratev , VA Volkonski ET Gurvich, NV Suvorov . 2 . Insufficient development aspects such as industry-specific features pricing issues in the specific conditions of Russia, particularly in the oil industry.
The book includes the abstracts of the participants of 11th European Conference on Psychological Assessment. The 11th European Conference on Psychological Assessment scientific program includes a very wide spectrum of presentations from the various branches of psychology – organizational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology, cognitive psyhology, personality psychology, positive psychology and others. The scientific program also provides an opportunity to hear the latest on technological advances in psychological assessment as well as to consider specific problems within the assessment process.
There is a common opinion in Russian business practice that writing business plans is an easy task with the help of COMFAR or Project Expert softwears, and it is not a big deal to compare different business plans once project financial summaries are available. However, one crucial issue is missing in such approach. Business-plan is an intellectual product, reflecting private investor interests, skills and experience. It is also a perishable product as its financial summaries are based on current economic assumptions. Tomorrow there will be new assumptions and accordingly new business plan summary is required. As such, private business implementation of modern technologies, best business practices and environment protection are among the most important criteria in state budget financing process but not a formal benchmarking of investment plans.
The new approach to parity of prices is the subject of article. The base of this approach is estimation of parameters of model for comparison of prices between countries. The disparity of the prices is defined as a sharp deviation of the price from the parity. Milk is taken as an example. The model on which the parity of the prices is defined, has been developed for the longterm prices fore- casting. The realization of the certain scenario of development of a national economy is a base of such forecasting
School Achievements Monitoring Toolkit (SAM) is the attempt to develop an instrument of school achievements assessment through their measurement and qualitative (structural) characteristic. The object of assessment includes subject competences of primary school students, that reflect how well they acquire basic school subjects such as mathematics, native language, science. The theoretical base of the toolkit developed is laid by the theory of cultural development of a child, outlined in L.S. Vygotsky’s works and further developed by his descendents – D.B. Elkonin, P.J. Galperin, V.V. Davydov, etc. This theory suggests that learning as a necessary prerequisite of a child’s psychic development, involves acquisition of sign structures, which crystallize all the basic landmarks of generalized action patterns: a) external characteristics of classes of object situations and corresponding actions; b) understanding of relevant relations within this class of situations, which define direction and limits of possible transformations; c) the essence of the action pattern, i.e. contexts of its meaningful applications. These three types of landmarks are featured in the cultural action pattern simultaneously. Still when adopting the pattern the role of the cornerstone is taken on first by the external characteristics of the object situation, then the understanding of the relevant relations within it, and finally the corresponding sense field. These three types of action orientation serve as markers of cultural action patterns. SAM toolkit is principally characterized by developing tasks of three different levels clustered into groups (blocks) when developing tests for each school subject area. Each of these clusters functions as a detector of how well a certain subject area has been acquired. When developing each block a developer employs a system of indicators (a typology of tasks), which reflect the generalized criteria of action pattern acquisition outlined above. Thus structural approach to featuring test results offers wider possibilities of content-wise interpretation of test findings and qualitative characterization of the competence assessed. As described above, all tests can be considered as consisting of three subtests. Each subtest represents a set of items of the same level but different content areas. All subtests of the SAM tests measure related (but supposedly different), latent examinees’ characteristics. So, the tests in SAM are assumed to be multidimensional. There are different approaches of modeling such kinds of tests. The report will contain description of IRT-modeling results of different approaches – unidimensional, consecutive and multidimensional. It will be shown that unidimensional approach is the more appropriate for SAM test data. In order to conduct the results interpretation benchmarks were established on the basis of three-leveled model of testing. Benchmarks make it possible to distinguish examinees referring to 4 groups of level achievement. The report will contain description of methods of setting benchmarks, which were developed by authors. These levels of achievement compose the basic taxonomy of educational goals, which has a psychological background, i.e. it indicates cultural-psychological structures which are crucial for competence development from immature to mature stage. To sum up, the report will contain the results of conducted research of validation of established benchmarks.
This study focuses on the assessment process and evaluation tools in a case study or a role play in a non-linguistic university. The multi-skill and multi-level communication activity assessment scheme is presented herein to enhance the students’ performance.
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.