Концепция бизнес-модели и возможности ее практического использования
One of the primary energy sources, natural gas is widely used for power generation, industrial production, transportation, commercial buildings, and households. The industry is a capital intensive one for all stages from exploration to delivery. Two types of supplies: pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), recently have faced a direct intra-industrial competition. Physical nature of methane and associated transportation costs lead to domination of so-called "natural monopolies" or "national champions" and strict government regulation, which postponed the development of free trade and competition. After decades of technical innovations and cost curve improvement in LNG sector, shale boom in the USA, increasing global consumption, and demand for supply diversification reformulated the role of gas in the global energy balance. While the pipeline sector remains to be in the hands of large corporations and a subject of strategic interstate and international agreements, or LNG provides more diversity and flexibility of trade. However, even after a long history of LNG shipment since the late 1950s, LNG market is still regional with high spreads between countries and terms of delivery.
The paper presents the evolution of business models in the natural gas industry, focusing on the primary drivers as government regulation, production technologies, and regional markets trends on the way to liberalization and cointegration. Thus, our primary objective is to show relative influence power of these drivers. This analysis also defines the competitiveness of corporate business model under conditions of asymmetric information, regional gas markets, deregulation trends, fast-growing production technologies and downstream infrastructure (specifically in LNG sector). We also enclose the analysis of the most globally competitive gas projects. We analyze changes in value chain change and trading contracts. Our methodological approach poses model-based principles, including option and contract models, jointly with game theory elements.
In the modern world one of the most effective tools of management can be - development of business-models. Thanks to the innovative principles and procedures laid down in this methodology, enterprises can gain sustainable competitive advantage and intensify their positions on the market. The using of business-modeling technologies in the conditions of Russian business today is a promising aspect for profit. The question arises: is it possible to develop standard components of business models? As part of this work an attempt was made to answer this question, considering the enterprises of service sphere. Significant differences services business from the production sphere predetermine the specifics of management activity on the service market. Nowadays, when the modern economy is developing mainly due to the enterprises of service sphere, the research of this problem becomes more and more acute.
The article analyzes the business models of combined transport, used in the transport service of continental (not including a sea) supply chains. Described are the common characteristics of business models as well as fundamental differences specific to the transport systems of the North America and Europe. Based on a comparison of structural and functional analysis the article reveales the most significant parameters of the business models of both types, as well as the conditions under which they can be sustainable. Examples of business models implementation in the North American and European practices are given and the mechanisms the final logistic product within different models are revealed.