Прояснение понятия совершенства и проблема аддитивности в модальной версии онтологического аргумента Алвина Плантинги
There is a chronological study in this paper consisting of three parts: 1) the conception of simplicity of God maintained by St. Thomas Aquinas, 2) rejection of God’s simplicity undertaken by Alvin Plantinga, and 3) an attempt to return to the idea of the simplicity of God in modern analytic research.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics - the ontological argument better known as the ontological argument of evidence for God's existence. The ontological argument is a logical nonsense for classical the subject - object relation; it becomes the natural phenomenon in the reflexive systems including cognitive activity of the subject as an element of the functioning and existence. The concept of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyze argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology in the course of the Western philosophy development. From the standpoint of the received results, the methodological problems of economic science related to the alienation and also the reflexive paradoxes encountered within sociology of knowledge are analyzed in the last part of the book. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
This article deals with the concept of omnipotence very important for contemporary analytic philosophy of religion. Within the analytic tradition it is usual to uncover an apparent tension between God’s omnipotence and other divine attributes. In response, some authors have proposed their own ideas on how classical problems of omnipotence can be solved in terms of possible worlds theory. In this paper we aim to consider the approaches developed by Geach, Adams and Plantinga. While admitting that each of them has made a significant contribution to the refinement of the concept of omnipotence, we still point out a number of important challenges that these authors were not able to overcome.
In this paper I briefly consider the following questions: 1) the actual ontology of states of affairs as it is given in Plantinga’s semantics; 2) the problem of transworld identity; 3) the redundancy of the concept of «object» as A. Plantinga postulates it. A philosophical analysis of this concept, as well as the concepts of «I» and of «actual world» within the framework of «states of affairs semantics» is provided.
The article deals with one of the most graceful and non-standard version of the modal ontological argument for existence of God proposed by analytic philosopher Stephen Makin in 1988. In his version he has succeeded to avoid the famous criticism of Kant the impossibility of using of the predicate ‘to exist’ as a “real”. Makin does not attempt to prove the necessary existing object; otherwise, he uses a concept of necessarily exemplified concept. He argues there is at least one (possibly unique) such concept - scilicet Anselm’s famous "that than which non greater can be conceived".
This study consists of three main parts: firstly, it is discussed Makin’s idea and version of the argument; secondly, it is analyzed the criticism which has been received from 1988 to 1991; thirdly, I present my own objections to Makin’s version, and to the criticism on it.
I will say something presently about three important points, namely: 1) there are no reasonable arguments in favor of the idea that class of necessarily exemplified concept is not empty; 2) there seems to be no plausibility to holding that the interchangeability of alethic modalities is sound here; 3) there are some additional difficulties that have been not previously mentioned in the analysis of evidence. In particular, the proof does not take into account the multilevel structure of the ontology, which hierarchy of levels, as a rule, determines what kind of entity exists in the ontology in the true sense of the word. In addition, Makin’s approach is well described in terms of Tichy’s "offices", which makes it impossible to worship God as omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics – the ontological evidence for God's existence or ontological argument. The idea of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyses argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology, which is adequate for knowledge of the systems including free activity of the person. These are the problems constantly facing modern social sciences; therefore, despite the historical and philosophical direction of the book, the problems that are relevant to modern social and human sciences are under continued discussion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The present paper deals with the problem of omnipotence in the context of an original version of possible worlds ontology developed by Alvin Plantinga. His conception of “de re” and “de dicto” is analyzed in connection with the problems of essentialism and transworld identification. Using the notion of TWD (“transworld depravity”) Plantinga claim to solve the logical problem of evil, this solution being the part of his famous FWD (“free will defense”) program. Plantinga’s strategy is to confine the notion of omnipotence step by step with rational arguments. But some of his technical concepts are not clear-cut enough and some of his philosophical speculations are rather scholastic.