Costituzioni sovietiche, Carta di libertà del Carnaro (1920), Costituzione della Repubblica spagnola (1931)
The author considers the pre-revolutionary Russian academic lawyers' viewpoints on human rights and freedoms: the liberal ideas at the end of the XIXth - the beginning of the XXth century in the studies of B. N. Chicherin, S. A. Muromtsev, N. M. Korkunov, M. M. Kovalevskii and P. I. Novgorodtsev, and the freedom of assembly views of such native political scientists as V. M. Gessen, V. V. Ivanovskii, S. A. Kotlyarevskii, A. I. Elistratov and V. F. Deryuzhinskii.
Based on the works by M. N. Katkov, L. A. Tikhomirov, P. E. Kazansky, the representatives of the conservative political and legal thought in Russia at the turn of the XX century, the article provides a comprehensive overview of their ideas on personal freedom and the role of the state in its realization, balance between rights and duties regarded as elements of legal status of a person. The article challenges a common stereotype about conservative thinkers ignoring the concept of personal freedom. On the contrary, the author argues that the problem of personal freedom was regarded in relation with adjustment of the principles of the absolute supremacy with the tendencies of modernization. The liberal ideas on incompatibility of personal freedom with the state were opposed by the conservative thesis on non-antagonism of personal freedom to monarchy which is regarded as a safeguard of modernization. Still the conservative ideas on universal freedom leading to personal oppression proved to be fatidic.