Исследование проблемы несовпадения данных опросников темперамента с помощью слуховых вызванных потенциалов
The article concerns R. Wollheim’s theory of twofoldness, the one of the most acclaimed analytical theories of pictorial representation. Wohhleim has pointed to the structural distinction of seeing pictures from seeing objects and situations face-to-face, thus proposing the theory of seeing-in and twofoldness. This conception presupposes the split, simultaneous seeing of the picture’s object and material surface. Considering the basic influences, features and shortcomings of Wollheim’s theory, author specifies the question of to what extent the scope of this theory is limited to artistic pictures. Alongside with this theory’s reconstruction and critique, the article provides its interpretation based on spatially-oriented definitions of twofoldness (B. Nanay, J. Kulvicki) coupled with the actualization of the distinction between representational content of a picture and its figurative content. The first one includes all spatial relations that can be seen in it, the second one – all that can be seen in it and described by non-abstract concepts. Wollheim reframed to apply this distinction to his notion on twofoldness. But it gives the possibility to bring out the convincing definition of twofoldness as the simultaneous visual experience of pictorial surface (i.e., some material object in viewer’s egocentric space) and of representational content (i.e., semantically active spatial relations which one sees in the picture). This interpretation may be considered a useful instrument for non-reductionist description of pictorial experience and pictures’ ontological duality, hence it is devoid of Wollheim’s psychologism while maintaining his focus on visuality. Moreover, it provides some opportunities for applying Wollheim’s theory beyond the contexts of analytical philosophy of pictures, thus connecting it to the problems of phenomenological and hermeneutic theories of image.
The research examines the structure of interrelations of brain event-related potentials to behavioral measures and temperament dimensions during an attentional task. Three temperament questionnaires were used: Eysenck Personality Inventory, Strelau Temperament Inventory and Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire. Event-related potentials were recorded under the active auditory oddball paradigm. The stimuli (85 dB, 1050 and 1000 Hz sinusoidal tones as targets and non-targets correspondingly) were easily discriminated by all participants. A complex framework of interrelations between temperament and personality dimensions, behavioral measures and event-related potentials was found. Particularly, P3 amplitude was negatively related to the number of response omissions. Emotionality was positively correlated to P2 and N1-P2 complex amplitude. Extraversion together with Mobility of Nervous Processes was negatively related to the amplitude of N1-P2 complex, and together with Social Ergonicity it was negatively related to N2 latency. The results demonstrate that Extraversion tends to be associated with both intensity and temporal aspects of temperament and hint at the importance of using multidimensional approach in temperament studies.
It is well known, that even in optimal conditions animals and humans make spontaneous errors which are the most prominent manifestations of attention system failures. Our goal was to investigate the causes of attention system failures in normal state of arousal and without distracting objects. We have designed a new task which allows to answer the following question: which stage of sensory processing is compromised during attention lapses?
Diagnostics and measurement are necessary for the effective management decision making. The social and economic processes are hardly to measure due to its nature. This article explores the approaches to the diagnostics of self-organizing and self-developing systems on the enterprise level. While the authors take into account the world measurement practice of management systems. The relationships between elements of self-organizing and self-developing systems and their key characteristics were revealed in purpose of diagnostic. The paper presents four steps of the diagnostics of the self-organization and self-development maturity level: the preparation phase, express-analysis of external experts, enterprise self-diagnostics with the help of questionnaires, precise diagnostics by external experts. The data obtained from questionnaires are analyzed with the help of special program. The results of the diagnostics are pictured with the Radar method.
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of individual temperament traits on selective auditory attention. The subjects performed auditory selective attention task during 3 experimental sessions. Task performance indexes of each session were found to correlate with the dimensions of temperament, subjects' academic achievement and their level of musical education. The results were interpreted from the viewpoint of Kahneman’s Capacity Model of Attention. It was concluded that temperament affects activation and arousal which are viewed as a physiological basis of attention. It was also summarized that during the experiment automation of auditory selection, depending on individual differences, occurred.
Recent events in Ukraine and Russia and the subsequent incorporation of Crimea into the Russian state, with the support of some circles of inhabitants of the peninsula, have shown that the desire of people to belong to the Western part of Europe should not automatically be assumed. Discussing different perceptions of the Ukrainian-Russian war in neighbouring countries, this book offers an analysis of the conflicts and issues connected with the shifting of the border regions of Russia and Ukraine to show how ’material’ and ’psychological’ borders are never completely stable ideas. The contributors – historians, sociologists, anthropologists and political scientists from across Europe – use an interdisciplinary and comparative approach to explore the different national and transnational perceptions of a possible future role for Russia.