Нестандартная занятость и нестандартная безработица в переходных экономиках развитого типа (сравнительный анализ России, Румынии и Эстонии)
This paper examines wage differentials between permanent/non-permanent and full-time/part-time employees. The analysis is based on the representative Household Survey of Welfare dataset, collected by Rosstat and the World Bank in 2003. The results show that non-permanent workers suffer a loss in wages while part-timers earn more per hour than full-timers, but the wage gap diminishes substantially when controlled for observed and non-observed characteristics. It seems that the theory of segmented labor markets is quite appropriate for explaining these differences in the Russian labor market.
The article focuses on diversification and destandartization of employment in the Russian economy. The authors discuss global and objective preconditions for this process but underline a few specific features of the Russian case. The latter are due to the market transition as well as to incomplete and selective enforcement of the excessively restrictive employment protection legislation. This explains high incidence of household-based subsistence farming, underemployment, time-related overemployment, informal employment against low level of formal contracts for fixed-term or part-time employment. Using representative data the authors illustrate all major forms of non-standard employment in Russia that have evolved since 1992.
The historical changes in Central and Eastern Europe demanded suitable paths for the transition from centrally planned to market based economies. The lack of relevant experience added to the challenge, giving rise to the incalculable risks of implementing untested policies. By focusing on monetary policy, trade, and convergence, this volume addresses some of the most urgent economic policy issues in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
Export is not the only driver of growth that helped German economy to revive fast after the Great Recession 2008-09. As important was the package of reforms Agenda 2010 aimed at liberalization of labour market. It made employment relations more flexible inter alia by deregulation of non-standard employment. Atypical forms of employment facilitate labour market entry for recruits and long-term unemployed, they increase the scope of flexibility for both employees and business and help employers to satisfy the fluctuating labour demand. The spread of atypical employment relationship strongly contributed to German employment boom, so called “Jobwunder”, and currently Germany shows a record level of employment and quite low unemployment rate. At the same time atypical employment may cause an increase in various social risks, low-wage jobs explosion and precarisation. Still, it would be misleading to identify precarious work and non-standard employment because of the heterogeneity of the latter.
This paper gives an overview of specific features of the atypical employment in Germany, deals with its development dynamics and evaluates negative and positive effects on labour market.