Институты и экономический рост: современные теоретические подходы
The need to increase the flexibility of the labour market and its adaptability to various shocks requires reconfiguration of its institutions by the government authorities in order to most fully correspond to modern socio-economic conditions. The main purpose of this article is to compare the two stages of labour market reform (1990–2007 and 2008–2017) in the OECD countries. The analysis focuses on the most important labour market institutions: employment protection legislation, wage setting system and active programs. The task of the study is to identify the main vector of these changes, to analyze the features and consequences of the transformations being carried out, and most importantly, answer the question whether the new regulatory norms have contributed to the labour market fl exibility. The study is based on institutional analysis. In the domestic literature, the reform of the labour market in developed and transitional economies is considered either in the country aspect or in relation to specific areas of reform. The peculiarity of this work is the interrelated analysis of the reform of the three main labour market institutions, as well as getting an answer to the question of why, aft er almost two decades of reforms, a new reconfi guration of labour market policies was required. The main sources of statistical information are: OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics Database; Employment Protection Database (2013 update); Database of Public expenditure and participant shares on LMP. Acquaintance with the main directions of such reforms in the OECD countries, their positive outcomes and possible negative consequences will allow the government bodies
The article investigates the public-state partnership, in which the society by its own forces and means is included along with the state, in the creation of public goods and services. The impact of such practices on the quality of public administration and public welfare, depending on the state of institutions, including the accountability of government to society, and on the stock of social capital, is discussed. The conclusions of the theory of public-public partnership are interpreted in the light of Russian realities, where the participation of society in the co-production of public goods and services becomes widespread.
The manual was compiled in accordance with the Program of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, designed for students under the Master's program. The manual contains a set of teaching materials with basic concepts, sample tasks, tests, practical situations for conducting seminars, as well as for independent work of students. For students, graduate students and teachers of economic universities and faculties, all interested in topical issues of institutional science.
This chapter provides historical evidence of innovation-led structural changes at the sub-national level in high-middle income economies, with particular emphasis on economies characterised by a significant knowledge base and weak institutions. Although manifestly not the outcome of smart specialization policy, the examples of self-discovery, entrepreneurchip and experimentation discussed here describe real-life smart specialization processes. Lessons are drawn to inform S3 policy designs and implementation: (1) Most success stories occurred spontanously, with limited policy interventions, and were led by self-discovery of private and public actors; (2) regional development is usually a by-product of the national or global success of private first movers that can initiate exclaves but may fails to become developed regional clusters; (3) 'Critical mas' of capabilities is a key policy problem at the sub-national level; (4) Collective action and coordination problems impede the S3 process; (5) Complementarity of various regional policies may increase the effectiveness of government support.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to analysing the current duality of the Russian media system, which for a long time was regarded as transitional. We propose to interpret the current Russian media system in terms of institutional conflict between norms, which were artificially implemented and the grounded informal rules embodied in everyday practices both from market agents and audiences. Mainly implemented after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the norms were based on a neo-liberal representation of the media system, involving financial independence of the media from the state, a ‘news culture’ instead of a ‘propaganda culture’ and so on. At the same time, the informal rules were based on the paternalistic role of the state, the accessibility tradition and the fragmentation of the public sphere. The interaction of such elements forms the dualist or ‘uncertain’ character of the media system.