Сентенциальные дополнения с союзом «чтобы»
This book is a study of the Russian subjunctive and the grammatical uses of the subjunctive particle бы (б). The author adopts a broad view of the Russian subjunctive and provides a unified account of uses of by with the morphological past alongside uses with the infinitive and predicatives, grouping all of these types into center and periphery. Dobrushina provides a detailed analysis of the subjunctive in the main as well as in a wide range of dependent clauses, including relative, conditional, concessive-conditional, purpose and complement clauses, basing the study on quantitative data obtained from the Russian National Corpus. The Russian subjunctive is compared to the category of irrealis in a wider typological context.
It is argued that in Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) some complement constructions actually include a relative clause where the target of the relativization is a factive argument introduced with dedicated applicative morphology.
The form whose main function is to express indirect commands, called the third person Imperative, Jussive or Exhortative, when compared to the prototypical (second person) Imperative, shows semantic and formal similarities and distinctions at the same time. The study describes formal and functional patterns of Jussive and places this category within the typology of the related categories, such as Imperative and Optative, based on data from six East Caucasian languages (Archi, Agul, Akhvakh, Chechen, Icari and Kumyk). Five formal patterns of Jussive are attested in these languages, including a specialized form, constructions derived from want, from tell him to do and from make him do and the Optative. Jussive forms may express such meanings as third person command, indirect causation, permission, indifference towards the accomplishment of an action and an assumption. While the Jussive is crucially different from the second person Imperative in that it introduces a third participant, this article shows that it is the addressee, not a third person, who is the central participant of a Jussive situation from both formal and functional points of view.
The manual contains a collection of exercises for practising subjunctive mood compiled from grammar books by eminent Russian grammarians.