The paper deals with the problem of social adaptation of children’s homes leavers and its gender aspects. Empirical data in research were expert interviews with professionals working with these young people. The aim of the paper is to analyze models of social adaptation, existing socialization practic- es of Russian children’s homes, as well as to reveal problems that experts mark as typical. Sociological research of expert knowledge seems relevant and mea- ningful, firstly, in the context of actual reformation of institutional care about or- phanages. Secondly, it is important to gain knowledge that is more embodied in- to practices in contrast to media representations and social stereotypes. The analysis of empirical data allows to state that social adaptation of orphanage leavers is still an important issue for different types of professionals. The author pro- vides a list of typical problems. The list is an outcome of expert interviews in six Russian regions. Problems of socialization and adaptation are due to both the institu- tional design of Russian child welfare system and personal characteristics of orphans. These problems don’t have the regional dimension and specific gender aspects.