Политический миф: ценностные ориентиры. Артуровский миф и политическая идеология английской короны
The article focuses on two medieval authors, who lived and worked at the court of Henry II Plantagenet - Wace, historiographer and the author of the novel about Brutus, and Marie de France, the author of the collection of lyric and epic poems about love and adventures of the ancient Britons, «Lais». It is conjectured that that the literary project of Marie, the collection «Lais» was formed under the influence of the Wace's novel «Brutus». Wace insists on the fact that his novel «Brutus» is a true story about the twelve years, when King Arthur led the warrior in his country at peace; Wace notices that these stories about wonders and adventures of this times are often perceived as fables.
Wace deliberately distance his work from these fables, from his point of view, there is no place for such fables in a historiographical narration. Marie de France writes twelve lais, in which adventure is one of the key words. It can be assumed that the twelve adventures of Bretons reminiscent the twelve years of peace established in the realm of King Arthur on his return to England, and that Marie de France tried to add the story about Bretons' adventures to Wace's chronicle (the story of the «true» gestures of Bretons), thus she tried to fill up the thematic and temporal lacuna in the novel about Brutus.
The Latin rhetorical triad («historia», «argumentum», «fabula») was actively used and reinterpreted in the Middle Ages. Macrobius, Isidore of Seville, Geoffrey Map - these are just a few of the authors who have used these categories both for the analysis of literature prior to them and for the analysis of their own works and the works of contemporary authors. This reflection on the form and function of the text also important for the literature written in the vernacular (Wace, Chrétien de Troyes, Guillaume de Lorris, etc.). The authors of the first works of the so-called Arthurian cycle, trying to raise the status of his narrative, insisted on historical accuracy of their texts (this intention was one of the reason for criticism form the so-called «professional historians», one of them was William of Newburgh, the British historian of 12. c.). First works of Arthurian literature (e.g. The History of the Kings of England by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Le Roman de Brut by Wace) were characterized by historiographic claims and by downplaying the proportion of invented elements. The latter was varying because of the language in which the works were written (Latin and Old French) as well as depending on the audience for which the texts were intended.
The monograph describes the image of city represented in folk songs, legends and riddles. The authors of the present study are focused on the world-modeling aspect of modern folklore.
For linguists, folklorists, culturologists and anyone interested in modern folklore.