Социально-экономические аспекты распространения пандемии COVID-19: особенности по странам
The article provides an overview of the socio-economic consequences of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries of the world. Analyzing open resources, the author revealed that both in developed countries with a stable economy and in developing countries, the coronavirus increased social imbalances among the population and exacerbated economic inequality.
How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected the medium-term (2020-2021) and long-term prospects of the Russian economy? Regular surveys of professional macro-forecasters and consensus forecasts calculated on their basis allow us to talk about averaged sentiments and expectations of the expert community (in the same sense as it is used to talk about entrepreneurial or consumer sentiments and expectations). Based on surveys conducted by the HSE 'Development Center' Institute in early February and early May 2020, this Chapter analyzes how the pandemic has affected experts' outlooks of the Russian economy.
The review considers the consequences of the widespread adoption of digital technologies into social life during the COVID-19 pandemic. It discusses how people’s interactions with each other and with technological devices have changed, how the inability to communicate directly face to face has affected them and what risks arise from the digitalization of work, education and everyday life.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly changed the lives of a majority of the world’s population. People have been encouraged to implement social distancing behaviors enforced by governments, and have experienced loss of employment or changes to their usual working environment. In the mental health sector, psychologists and psychiatrists have been forced to alter the standard care of patients without compromising safety. This article documents the experiences of the authors – mental health professionals in four countries, Canada, Russia, Australia and Japan – at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, and offers recommendations on how clinical, training, and research practices may need to be adjusted to deal with lockdown situations. Clinicians adapted their usual best practices by learning new skills and updating their knowledge base. Mental health clinicians noticed that the pandemic led to symptomatic changes in some of their patients. Most clinicians moved towards providing telemental health services, such as conducting assessments and treatments remotely. Those who continued seeing patients in person employed personal protective equipment with various impacts on the clinician–patient relationship. The dilemmas of mass quarantines need to be carefully examined, as their effects on numerous health and psychosocial variables appear to be far-reaching.
Following the four thematic sections – shared security; shared prosperity; migration; civil society, culture and media – the Report focuses on a selection of crucial topics, highlighting both the challenges and the dynamics taking shape in a region that has been hard hit by the coronavirus. Here, as elsewhere in the world, the pandemic has triggered a deep economic crisis that has affected all regional economies. However, here more than elsewhere, the coronavirus has impacted on a context already marred by socio-economic vulnerabilities, inequalities and instability. Furthermore, while confrontation continues to characterise a region where conflicts remain unsolved, geopolitical shifts are bringing about a reconfiguration of the regional order with long-term implications. Against this backdrop, one of the main questions to address is how to turn the pandemic into an opportunity tofind long-term solutions that can foster stability and prosperity in the Mediterranean.
In the second half of the 2010s, the economic situation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) deteriorated as a result of lower oil and other commodity prices, a new round of domestic political instability, continuous intra-regional conflicts, stalled economic and governance reforms and, finally, the COVID-19 pandemic. The deteriorating macroeconomic trends manifested themselves in slower growth rates (which in 2020 turned negative almost everywhere), worsening fiscal and external balances, increasing public debt and, in several cases, higher inflation. There has been no visible progress in resolving long-term structural and institutional challenges such as high unemployment, especially among youths, low female labour market participation, poor quality of education, costly and ineffective public sector activity, high military and security spending, high energy subsidies and others.
As a response to the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many countries have imposed restrictions on fundamental constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedoms of speech and assembly. The rapid spread of the understudied virus and the rise of the emotional tension within the society compelled the state authorities to adopt prompt measures to contain the virus. Unfortunately, the situation did not allow the decision-makers either to assess the specific aims of the restrictions or to consciously select the most adequate and least restrictive measures to fight the new virus. As a result, the legal systems have been infiltrated not only by the necessary limitations, but also by excessive and ineffective restrictive measures that are not suited to contain the infection and are incompatible with the principles of a pluralistic democracy. The article scrutinizes the latter statement focusing on anti-COVID-19 measures that impose restrictions on freedoms of peaceful assembly and speech. We resort to the criteria of the lawfulness of restrictions that stem from the principle of proportionality (legitimate aim, rational connection, necessity and proportionality stricto sensu). In the chapter devoted to the freedom of assembly, the author looks at different approaches that the states take to addressing the risks that public manifestations pose to public health in times of the pandemic. The comparative study also uncovers the differences in the relative value of freedom of assembly as opposed to that of «epidemiological safety». In the chapter devoted to the new limitations of freedom of speech, the author focuses on provisions that prevent the distribution of misinformation regarding COVID-19 and measures taken against it, adopted by several states, including Russia. The proportionality analysis shows that measures to counter fake news present an example of abuse of extraordinary powers to suppress public debate and limit the citizens’ right to criticize the government. The author comes to a conclusion that a blanket ban on small-scale manifestations and the liability for distribution of false information regarding COVID-19 and measures taken to fight it are disproportionate measures that are by no means justified by the aim of protecting public health in times of the pandemic.
This issue of the series «Modern Education Analytics» examines trends in changes in wages, employment and income of employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. This publication reviews the dynamics of the average salary of teaching staff of educational organizations at all levels of education. Special attention is paid to the study of the purchasing power of the average salary of teachers of educational organizations by level of education as a key characteristic of the success of reforms in the field of teachers’ remuneration, reflecting the satisfaction of teachers and changes in the status of teachers. The issue also presents proposals for improving the remuneration of teachers in the current conditions of transition to mixed learning technologies in education.
The article focuses on two important areas of integration of the Greater Eurasia project: the sphere of defense and security, as well as the economic and geographical dimension in the context of the export of a pandemic. The first part of the article examines in detail the defense and security dimension of Greater Eurasia, using the example of military cooperation between China and Russia as the main driver of Greater Eurasia.