‘Sovereignty’ and ‘Intervention’ Metaphors of Russia’s Loneliness in a Global World
Chapter is devoted to differencies in Russian and Western approaches to conducting peace operations in conflict areas
The article deals with J.S. Mill’s arguments for military interventions justified in exceptional cases. Mill declared doctrine of non-intervention to be the key principle of the world politics. This principle postulates value of freedom and the right of people to self-determination. But there are some cases – such as revolutions, mass human rights violations or in fighting against barbaric state – when enlightened nations should take responsibility to establish peace and welfare with the use of force. Mill’s conception, adapted to 21st century political reality, is still used for military operations verification.
This article reveals the psychological aspects of life dissatisfaction in women who have succeeded in their careers. A theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem and an empirical study were carried out to research those aspects. It was found that the psychological aspects of life dissatisfaction in women who succeeded in their careers were associated with a chronic stress, as well as with a sex-role conflict and a state of loneliness women experienced. The higher the level of stress among women who've succeeded in their careers, the less satisfied they are with their living standards. Women feel concerned and responsible for the work performed, they have a constant desire to act. Besides, they show psychosomatic symptoms of stress. Study results and materials can be used by clinical psychologists providing consultations to women and conducting social and psychological trainings
The contemporary level of scientific knowledge in the realm of jurisprudence rules out metanarratives about essence of law. Legal pluralism, being one of the consequences of globalization, has become one of the incontestable facts of the legal reality; legal regulation is now carried out on many levels and in a multiplicity of forms. This implies that essentialist discussions about the nature of law are out of date. Russian legal theory until now has relied on the essentialist scheme of le gal thinking, in which a definition of the law is the starting premise and the binding force of law is justified with reference to the category of sovereignty. This scheme involves contradictions between: claims from the constitutional discourse about the supremacy of human rights and the priority of principles of international law or balance in lawapplication, on the one hand; and the theoretical foundations of such claims, on the other hand. The style of legal thinking based on the legal scholarship at the beginning of the XX century can show the inadequacy of philo sophical and theoretical conceptualizations of the key problems of legal science such as sources of the binding force of the law, limits of the rulemaking power of the state, and the correlation between legal orders created by the state and by other social institutions. Legal education and scholarship in Russia are still pre supposing that state power prevails in the issues of lawmaking and lawenforce ment; this justifies the absolute and unlimited character of state sovereignty and the other key ideas in the first versions of legal positivism. Because of the iron cur tain in the previous years, in the late 1980s Russian legal philosophers and theo reticians found themselves unprepared to make a theoretical conceptualization of the effect of globalization. Moreover, during many years they just ignored the prob lems that are connected with this effect. Nonetheless, in the scope of these years the Russian economy and, to a large extent Russian law, have gotten involved in the processes of globalization, including the processes of fragmentation and the pluralization of legal orders. This has resulted in a considerable gap between legal theory and legal practice.
This article presents possible answers, and their respective probabilities, to the question, ‘What are the consequences of the present global crisis in the proximate future of the World System?’ It also attempts to describe the basic characteristics of the forthcoming ‘Epoch of New Coalitions’ and to forecast certain future conditions. Among the problems analyzed in this paper are the following: What does the weakening of the economic role of the USA as the World System centre mean? Will there be a leader in the future World System? Will the deficit of global governance and world fragmentation continue to worsen? How can national sovereignty be transformed?
The letters of Eleanor Lord Pray (1868-1954) describe the reaction to the news of the revolution, the first rallies and demonstrations in the Far East, the revolutionary upsurge and its end, the intervention and rise to power of the Bolsheviks in 1922. Pray is often quite critical and notes her disappointment with modern society, and her look at current events reveals a regret about the past and the coming changes. The author writes about the complete absurdity of the ongoing social change and inconsistency of the revolutionaries. At the same time the enthusiasm for the possibility of a new bright future for Russia is replaced by bitter disappointment with what has happened. Special attention is given to intervention and to the relationship with the new government. In 1930, after 36 years of living in Vladivostok, finally losing all possibilities for living in Soviet Russia, Pray leaves the country forever.
Book devoted to analysis of peace operations by UN and specifically "Responsibility to Protect" concept