The centrepiece of the government's new economic model are 13 ambitious projects that align with The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Over a six-year period to 2024, the government is investing more than than US$ 1 trillion in science, the digital economy, ecology, health, education, housing and other areas. Readiness for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is a cross-cutting priority of the 13 projects and the national strategy for artificial intelligence. The government is espousing a goal-oriented management system to strengthen national competitiveness, independence and security. There are plans to develop world-class infrastructure in selected regions for ‘a new geography of science’. One challenge will be to raise expenditure on research and education, especially since improving the quality of public universities is a priority. Since 2015, solar, gas and wind consumption have progressed each year but the use of renewable energy is being hampered by the centralized management of the Russian energy sector, higher consumer prices for renewable energy and the rigours of the country’s cold climate.
The article deals with the problems of interaction between science and technology, innovation and industrial policy in Russia. In spite of the substantial intensification of the state policy in establishing of the new elements of the national innovation system, the coordination between different policies continues to remain weak that leads to inefficient use of resources under tight budget constraints. The author offers a set of actions aimed at improving the coordination.
The global economic and political landscape is undergoing profound changes as the world enters a period of rapid transformation development strategies or adjusting their existing ones with greater prominence given to the role of innovation in the leading and underpinning development to strengthen their strategic arrangements for innovation⁃driven development, in a bid to improve their international competitiveness and seize the initiative in global competition Science, technology and innovation (STI) are recognized as the golden key to the door to growth In this trend of the times, the BRICS countries are spearheading the development of developing countries and attracting international attention with their highly innovative and distinctive development strategies Meanwhile, the BRICS as a bloc has become an exemplar of STI cooperation of developing countries.
As the rotating chair of BRICS in 2017, China will host the 9th BRICS Summit in Xiamen in September In the lead⁃up to the summit, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) hosted the 5th BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Ministerial Meeting in Hangzhou in July, where BRICS STI ministers had in⁃depth discussions and reached wide consensus on topics including STI policy, cooperation in priority areas, and co-funding for multilateral research projects The BRICS Action Plan for Innovation Cooperation and the Hangzhou Declaration
To support the work relating to BRICS STI cooperation under the Chinese presidency, China Science and Technology Exchange Center (CSTEC), as entrusted by MOST, established a High Level Expert Group of leading professionals The High⁃level Expert Group complied theBRICS Innovative Competitiveness Report 2017, in collaboration with the science and technology sections of Chinese embassies in other BRICS countries and STI think tanks in other BRICS countries Based on the latest available data, the Report of the BRICS STI cooperation, and presents country and thematic studies on the STI development of BRICS countries.
The Report consists of four parts, with a total of 12 sub⁃reports Part I two general sub⁃reports: an analysis report which evaluates and forecasts the national innovation competitiveness of BRICS countries and their STI cooperation and strategic priorities; and a research report on the priority areas BRICS STI cooperation for win⁃win results This part evaluates the comprehensive national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries since 2001 and forecast their innovative competitiveness in the next five years It also assesses the current status and progress of China's STI cooperation with other BRICS countries, and identifies priority areas of BRICS STI cooperation, support for BRICS countries to strengthen their national innovation competitiveness Part Ⅱ presents six country reports, which evaluate, analyze and forecast of the national innovation competitiveness of the BRICS countries and studies of their STI cooperation within the BRICS framework Part Ⅲ presents four thematic reports, which focus on the four thematic areas to STI, including digital economy, inclusive finance, energy, and agriculture, elaborate the STI development and potential of the individual BRICS countries in those areas, and provide valuable inputs for the BRICS countries' national innovation competitiveness Part IV contains appendixes, including an introduction to the related indicator system BRICS STI cooperation.
Science, technology and innovation (STI) involves numerous policy fields which are championed by different government ministries or agencies. A consistent and coherent anticipatory policy mix is understood to be one that ensures a timely development and implementation of various forward-looking policy instruments. Such timely implementation is crucial for the eventual impact of the policy measures. This also requires that foresight for STI policies looks beyond the potential development paths and challenges but includes the time dimension and the outline of necessary policy responses including a relevant implementation framework. In addition the institutions which are part of the National Innovation Systems (NIS) should to be considered thoroughly for a well-balanced and comprehensive policy mix. Not only national but also regional and local actors need to be involved—and they need to be involved not only in the implementation of policy but at much earlier stages in the foresight and subsequent design procedures of the policy mix. One practical approach for convincing and engaging NIS actors at different levels is to stress opportunities which offer advantages to each of them, instead of just focusing on challenges and problems.
Research evaluation recently became a widely disseminated exercise aimed in the end of the day at improving the cost efficiency of public funding of national R&D sectors. In November 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation initiated a national evaluation exercise of public research institutions (PRIs) to provide information basis for development of S&T policies aimed at increasing effectiveness and strengthening the role of R&D performing institutions in economic and social development. The aim of this paper is that of providing an approach for multidimensional assessment of R&D performance based on quantitative data derived from the national evaluation exercise, specifically looking at its applicability and limitations for further analysis and preliminary differentiation of PRIs as well as for use in policymaking.
During the last decade new systems of strategic tools of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy has been established in many developed and developing countries. Science and technology (S&T) Foresight in a variety of its forms and implementations is an integral part of these systems. The paper is devoted to the creation of the Russian system of technology Foresight. It provides a brief comparative analysis of S&T Foresight systems in different countries, their roles and practical applications in the government decision-making. The analysis of the Russian experience of S&T Foresight is used to identify major challenges and barriers for its use for development of government STI policy. The main aims, objectives and principles of the national system of technology Foresight are discussed.
The book gives practical guidance for policy makers, analysts and researchers on how to make the most of the potential of Foresight studies. Based on the concept of evidence-based policy-making, Foresight studies are common practice in many countries and are commonly understood as a supportive tool in designing future-oriented strategies. The book outlines approaches and experiences of integrating such Foresight studies in the making and implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies at different national levels. It delivers insights into practical approaches of developing STI policy measures oriented towards future societal and technological challenges based on evidence drawn from comparable policy measures worldwide. Authors from leading academic institutions, international organizations and national governments provide a sound theoretical foundation and framework as well as checklists and guidelines for leveraging the potential impact of STI policies.
Foresight has gained much attention as a tool for developing and informing science, technology and innovation policy and company strategies. It is frequently used for detecting not only potential development paths of technologies but also possible economic and societal changes; and for identifying challenges that nations, societies and companies might face in the future. Raising awareness within the respective communities of trends and challenges is critically important—and the biggest challenge is how we can develop measures to meet these anticipated challenges. Paradoxically, perhaps, it may be more helpful for creating and implementing successful measures if these are elaborated by thinking about grasping opportunities, rather than framing them in terms of threats that have to be responded to. Accordingly there is a need to change the mindsets in science, technology and innovation policy making—and to engender solution and opportunity orientation among scientists and engineers.