От инвентаризации к природоохранной оценке: развитие метода сеточного картографирования
Extensive data on the flora and fauna of the surveyed areas, as well as individual groups of protected plant and animal species, can be mapped using the square grid method. The paper shows the ways and directions of development of the method, as well as the features of its application in Russia. On the example of the Kaliningrad region and the Republic of Crimea the peculiarities of distribution of protected species of higher vascular plants and vertebrates are analyzed, the places of floristic, faunistic and floristic-faunistic diversity are revealed. The conclusions about the effectiveness of the environmental protection are drawn on the basis of comparison with the network of specially protected natural areas. The paper also assesses the applicability of the method of grid mapping at the regional level to solve environmental problems.
Currently, the effective use of all available geographical information in Earth Sciences worldwide is associated with problems of their processing and effective application, although more recently, the problems of storing large amounts of data have been added to this. In modern conditions, the spatial data Fund is a complex and extensive information field containing the most heterogeneous data in terms of spatial coverage and resolution. This is due to an increase in the volume of information, and the ways to choose the means and methods of processing. In the research work of scientists and the routine work of managers, only knowledge-intensive information is needed, which has specifics due to the specialization, complexity and strong connectivity of data.
This book describes modern tools and methods of geoinformation mapping, remote monitoring in geographical research for complex spatial analysis of natural and socio-economic processes. The synthesis of industry knowledge is also necessary for studying different aspects of nature and society, for establishing patterns and deepening geographical knowledge, and for making forecasts. Modern geoinformation technologies, remote sensing of the Earth, and cartographic works based on them most fully meet such complex requests.
The graph of internal states of Sponge construction and the relationship between internal states and elements of the output sequence are investigated. The methods of constructing collisions which use features of the cyclic structure of Sponge construction’s substitution are proposed. The general form of the corresponding collisions is described.
This article conducts a study of multiplying the credit rating agencies efforts. These opportunities are practically important in connection with implementation of the IRB approach. The author considers Russian commercial banks as one of the main examples of using proposal methods, so in addition to literature overview the paper includes review of the Russian banking system and rating activities.
Firstly, the author discussed the rating scales mapping for comparison of rating estimations of different agencies. Then, he proposed the distance method with the connected extremum problem to find compatible mapping functions for rating scale correspondence.
Secondly, the paper considered the possibility of rating model system creation for financial institutions. The bank rating models in order logit interpretation are discussed simultaneously for resident (Russian) and non-resident institutions. In addition, the specification of bank models’ characteristics and their quality were considered for the three largest international rating agencies also as econometrical models for corporates and sovereign were presented.
The results reviewed can help to apply basic instruments for practical applications of such models to the risk management problems, which are based on the public information and remote estimation of ratings. Commercial banks and government financial regulators may be perspective consumers of the proposed methods.
The probabilistic characteristics of the graph of degrees of equiprobable random mappings. In particular the exact expression of the probability of collision for two random vertices in the graph of degree of random mapping is obtained.
We examine the synergy of the credit rating agencies’ efforts. This question is important not only for regulators, but also for commercial banks if the implementation of the internal ratings and the advanced Basel Approach are discussed. We consider Russian commercial banks as a good example where proposal methods might be used. Firstly, a literature overview was supplemented with an analysis of the activities of rating agencies in Russia. Secondly, we discussed the methods and algorithms of the comparison of rating scales. The optimization task was formulated and the system of rating maps onto the basic scale was obtained. As a result we obtained the possibility of a comparison of different agencies’ ratings. We discussed not only the distance method, but also an econometric approach. The scheme of correspondence for Russian banks is presented and discussed. The third part of the paper presents the results of econometric modeling of the international agencies’ ratings, as well as the probability of default models for Russian banks. The models were obtained from previous papers by the author, but complex discussion and synergy of their systematic exploration were this paper’s achievement. We consider these problems using the example of financial institutions. We discuss the system of models and their implementation for practical applications towards risk management tasks, including those which are based on public information and a remote estimation of ratings. We expect the use of such a systemic approach to risk management in commercial banks as well as in regulatory borders.
The ability of social media to rapidly disseminate judgements on ethnicity and to influence offline ethnic relations creates demand for the methods of automatic monitoring of ethnicity-related online content. In this study we seek to measure the overall volume of ethnicity-related discussion in the Russian-language social media and to develop an approach that would automatically detect various aspects of attitudes to those ethnic groups. We develop a comprehensive list of ethnonyms and related bigrams that embrace 97 Post-Soviet ethnic groups and obtain all messages containing one of those words from a two-year period from all Russian-language social media (N=2,660,222 texts). We hand-code 7,181 messages where rare ethnicities are over-represented and train a number of classifiers to recognize different aspects of authors’ attitudes and other text features. After calculating a number of standard quality metrics, we find that we reach good quality in detecting intergroup conflict, positive intergroup contact, and overall negative and positive sentiment. Relevance to the topic of ethnicity and general attitude to an ethnic group are least well predicted, while some aspects such as calls for violence against an ethnic group are not sufficiently present in the data to be predicted.
The Russian Scientometric Handbook is designed to provide an overview of the field of scientometrics. The Handbook describes the history of creation of the breakthrough concept of citation indexing by Dr. Eugene Garfield, and development of the first multidisciplinary scholarly citation index, the Science Citation Index. Application of scientometric tools and methods in research management and resource allocation is discussed. Authors survey various scientometric indicators relevant to individual researchers, journals, research institutions and whole countries. Authors explore new types of indicators, such as altmetrics, relationship between scientometric indicators and the nature of scientific communication, and various methods of visualizing scientometric information. Possibilities and limitations of various scientometric techniques are examined. Authors highlight the need for an informed and reasonable approach to the use of quantitative indicators for research assessment. The Handbook includes the first Russian translations of three articles by Dr. Eugene Garfield.
The Handbook is intended for use by researchers, science analysts, universities and research institutions administrators, libraries and information centers staff, graduate students, and the general public interested in scientometrics and research evaluation.