Волонтерство и НКО в странах ближнего зарубежья в условиях COVID-19: тренды и практики
Many industries of a modern economy display the interaction of private and public agents and volunteers. In this paper we discuss current attempts to explain the existence of nonprofit firms, phenomenon of altruism, comparative characteristics of economic behavior in all three sectors. The authors explore altruistic motives. They consider also a case of community transport in several countries. The research was carried out as provided by the HSE program of fundamental studies in 2013.
This book provides a critical account of the third sector and its future in Europe. It offers an original conceptualization of the third sector in its European manifestations alongside an overview of its major contours, including its structure, sources of support, and recent trends. It also assesses the impact of this sector in Europe which considers its contributions to European economic development, citizen well-being and human development.
The Third Sector As A Renewable Resource for Europe presents the findings of the Third Sector Impact (TSI) project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7). It recognises that in a time of social and economic distress, as well as enormous pressures on governmental budgets, the third sector and volunteering represent a unique ‘renewable resource’ for social and economic problem-solving and civic engagement in Europe.
Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence of sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. The nature of the effect of external funding is conceptualized taking several perspectives. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.
The coronavirus epidemic caused not only an explosion of attention in Russian public communication, but the media discourse content also transformed radically during the first months of the 2020 epidemic: from distrust and panic to responsible balanced content. An analysis of this phenomenon allows for a deeper understanding of the evolution of the value-normative characteristics of modern society broadcast in the media. There is a trend of a transition from ill-conceived propaganda of rights to a balance of rights and responsibilities as well as an increase of attention in public discourse to free speech. In addition, there is a trend towards a transition from the dominance of post-truth to manifestations of personal freedom as responsibility. The dynamics of the coronavirus discourse not only fit into this general civilizational trend, but they provided additional impulses for the trend’s further development. Such a shift in emphasis makes it useful to appeal to the concept of parrhesia - a free and responsible "taking the floor" (“word-taking”).
This chapter presents main features of giving in modern Russia. This includes state of the third sector, of the governmental support of the civil society, citizens’ engagement into monetary donations and significant factors that influence it.
Russia is a country with a long-standing philanthropic tradition. Its philanthropic sector underwent an intensive process of institutionalization from the mid-19th century up to the revolution of 1917. The post-Communist transit after 70 years of a state monopoly for solving social problems spurred the formation of a new nonprofit sector, which supplemented the insufficient public sector to satisfy the needs of Russian citizens. The third sector in Russia is still modest in size and its relationship with the state is rather complicated. Nevertheless, the sector developed into an important actor in a public life. From the typological perspective of Salamon and Anheier (1998), Russia is characterized by the social-democratic nonprofit regime as judged by its current ratio of public expenditure funding sources. The state is the largest donor supporting the nonprofit sector, namely socially oriented NPOs. However it is still rather suspicious about human rights activities and third sector’s participation in politics. These factors obstruct third sector development, preventing NPOs from securing financial stability. Formal channels of monetary donations are relatively weak in Russia, majority of Russians are most trustful of giving money directly to the needy that to NPOs. Citizens are often poorly informed about NPOs and do not trust many of them. Basing on all-Russian mass-polls data about direction, amount, frequency of giving is provided as an evidence for this thesis.
This issue represents options for solving the problems that emerged in schools in connection with the switch to distant learning. The response of schools to the crisis is being analyzed in terms of teachers, who try to compensate their lack of professional skills, changes in curriculum, in work hours and duties of collaborators, overcoming the lack of funds and resources for distance learning, overcoming the deficit of constructive behavior with parents. In issue there is a special section with management recommendations for administrators of institutions and public education authorities.