M&A Trends in Emerging Capital Markets
Cooperative game theory instruments application to the corporate finance M&A research issues provide an ability to extend the field considered and conclusions obtained. The paper presents the M&A cooperative games modeling and its empirical implementation to analyze the airline strategic alliance as M&A deal.
Being one item by definition investment is actually not homogenous: generally, there are two major types – capital investment and investment in M&A deals. They are different from firm’s point of view and influence economic growth through different channels. In this paper, we examine the relationship between new capital investments and investments in acquisitions in Russia using data for more than one hundred companies in 2004-2014. The period is split into two sub-samples – period of rapid growth (before the global financial crisis of 2008) and post-crisis one (after 2009). Our results show that relationship between fixed investments and investments in acquisitions is opposite for two periods. In the first period, relationship between two types of investment was positive for non-state companies and insignificant for state ones that possibly means that companies did not face the choice of investment form. After the global financial crisis, when monetary conditions and access to external capital markets for Russia tightened considerably, the relationship between investment in new capital and investment in acquisitions became negative. It proves that companies faced a trade-off between two investment forms. Moreover, acquisitions became dependent on company’s profitability. Therefore, the trade-off can be more severe in developing economies since they are more dependent on external financing. These results can provide policy implications given the new understanding of financial constraint significance for investment.
The performance of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is one of the key issues in corporate finance. We contribute to existing literature by examining the performance of M&A deals based on the economic profit model and comparing the results with ones obtained by means of traditional methods – accounting studies. Applying economic profit as an indicator of M&A performance allows us, in contrast to existing studies, to assess the impact of mergers and acquisitions on value of European companies in the long-run. Our study is based on the sample of 153 M&A deals initiated by companies from developed capital markets of Western Europe. Analyzing one of the latest periods, 2000-2011 years, we prove that the performance of combined firms improves subsequent to mergers and acquisitions. We find positive industry-adjusted differences between the post-acquisition and the pre-acquisition performance measures. The difference equals to significant 3.3% for EBITDA/Sales ratio and 3.1% for EBITDA/BVAssets ratio. The economic profit approach demonstrates similar results. Economic profit has increased due to M&A deals by $7.5 million. The obtained results indicate that companies in developed capital markets of Western Europe are able to achieve planned synergies and integrate successfully improving the operating performance and creating value of the combined firms.
This paper investigates the long-term impact of domestic and international acquisitions, initiated by Russian firms, on their operating performance. In general, acquisitions can be associated with synergy gains, internalization advantages, and higher market power. Acquisitions, however, may also give rise to agency problems as well as new integration and organizational costs, leading to an ambiguous overall impact on the performance of acquirers. Based on a sample of more than 600 acquirers we show that both domestic and international acquisitions tend to reduce the performance of acquirers compared to non-acquiring firms. Examining how different deal, firm and industry level characteristics moderate the value destroying effects of acquisitions, our results suggest that Russian acquirers suffer from the inability to leverage value due to low M&A experience and capability, especially when making international acquisitions.