Strategic Deals in Emerging Capital Markets. Are There Efficiency Gains for Firms in BRIC Countries?
The industrial development of emerging markets has been a powerful driver for mergers and acquisitions. The contributions collected in this book assess major M&A deals in the largest emerging capital markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and their role in shareholder value creation in the markets’ specific business environments. In addition, the book explores various dimensions of M&A deals in order to summarize the main trends in corporate control markets in the largest emerging countries, and how they differ from those in developed countries; to identify deal-performance relationships and the determinants of success or failure; to reveal the drivers for the premium in M&A deals; and to capture market responses to different M&A strategies. By doing so, the book makes a significant contribution to the literature, which has to date largely focused on developed markets.
The literature on M&As provides ample evidence for the variability of premiums paid in M&As deals over time and in different types of deals. Most work has been done on the data from developed markets. Using a sample of M&A deals in the largest emerging markets (BRIC) for 2000–2015, we examine three types of factors (acquirer characteristics, target characteristics, deal characteristics). To measure the premium, the event studies method is used, therefore the data on cumulative average abnormal returns (CAAR) is adjusted to the market movements in each respective country. We focus on three levels of acquired stakes (>25%, >50% and 100%). The study contributes to a deeper understanding the differences in the size of premiums among the countries and the interaction of the main determinants which influence the magnitude of the premium. The regression results document positive drivers of the size of the premium including, the percentage of the stake and industry relatedness. Besides these stylized determinants, the premium increases if the deal is made in a crisis year and by a domestic bidder. The negative determinants include the target size, its financial leverage and the pre-bid stake of the acquirer (toehold).
In recent years corporate international diversification has become a widely used growth strategy for companies from both developed and emerging markets. Nevertheless, academic papers provide contradictory results on whether the influence of international diversification on firm performance is positive or negative. This chapter presents the results of an empirical analysis of corporate international diversification – performance relationship on a sample of companies from BRIC countries, which expanded geographically in 2005-2015. We contribute to the existing literature by applying a new methodology to identify the performance effects of corporate international diversification based on an economic profit measure. The results indicate that there is a non-linear relationship between the degree of international diversification and economics profit spread. Additionally, for BRIC companies international diversification on average does not have a significant impact on expected long term performance, measured by Tobin’s Q.
This chapter contributes to the literature on M&A performance by examining the impact of M&A deals on company value over the long-run in developed and emerging economies. Examining a sample of 153 and 125 deals from Western European and emerging capital markets respectively, 2002-2013, and employing economic profit as a performance measure,we find that transactions in developed markets create more value for shareholders than M&As in emerging economies over the two-year period surrounding the deals. After adjustments for industry trends, economic profit significantly decreases for firms in emerging capital markets, taking negative values, while for companies in developed markets we observe insignificant improvements in economic profit values following acquisitions. These results indicate that companies in emerging capital markets cannot achieve the planned synergies, integrate successfully and improve the performance of the combined firms. We find that industry and geographical diversification influence the performance of M&A deals in emerging and developed countries respectively. We also find that the effects on company value differ for stock and cash deals, and for high- and low-tech transactions in both markets. Testing the impact of economic crisis of 2007-2008 on the performance of M&A deals we reveal that the adjusted economic profit does not differ significantly between pre- and post-crisis M&As.
Researchers have long tried to define the impact of corporate diversification on firm value. Academic papers mainly concentrate on the effects of corporate diversification in mature markets while its consequences in emerging capital markets are less explored. This article presents the results of an empirical analysis of corporate diversification strategies of a sample of companies from BRIC countries that expanded via acquisitions during 2000–2013. We contribute to the existing literature by examining the effects of corporate diversification on firm value during the pre- and post-crisis periods. In line with other studies, we distinguish between related and unrelated diversification and in contrast to them we single out and separately analyze horizontal, conglomerate and vertical acquisitions. Based on a sample of 319 deals initiated by companies from BRIC countries, we found positive (3.32% and 9.01%) and statistically significant cumulative abnormal returns for conglomerate acquisitions during the pre- and post-crisis periods, correspondingly. We also found that the market reacts positively and statistically significant to the announcements of horizontal and vertical integration only during the pre-crisis period.
This chapter surveys the recent trends in the literature on the performance of M&A deals in developed and emerging capital markets. This literature is voluminous, diverse and challenging. We focus on the transactions within one country – domestic M&As – in particular focusing on the methods that the researchers use to estimate whether M&A deals promote efficiency gains or not. We discuss the research instruments which allow an assessment of the effects of M&As on firm operating performance and on firm value. Analysing the results of latest empirical studies we reveal that target shareholders gain significantly in M&A deals. The evidence suggests that in most cases acquiring shareholders receive negative or insignificant returns in the short-run in developed capital markets, while in emerging economies acquiring shareholders mostly gain in M&A deals. Operating performance analysis reveals mixed results in developed and emerging capital markets, while the analysis of papers which use value performance indicators show the destruction of company value due to M&As in developed and emerging capital markets. The review also analyses studies that examine the relationship between different methods.
This research develops an approach to synergy analysis in domestic Russian mergers and acquisitions (M&As), tests potential success factors, and evaluates two types of operating and three types of financial synergies. This chapter makes two primary contributions to the literature. First, this chapter is related to the recent research that investigates M&As in emerging markets. Our chapter is unique in that we study domestic Russian M&As based on long-term firm accounting data. This approach captures private companies and small deals that make up the majority of the Russian M&A market. The second contribution is to estimate the structure of operating and financial synergies for every deal and test the significance of potential success factors. The scope is limited to domestic Russian M&As closed between January 2006 and September 2015. The sample is based on the Mergermarket database and includes 171 deals. Our analysis shows that after M&As, firms achieve −0.1% capital expenditure efficiency and −0.2% operating margin compared to the industry benchmark. Deals lead to 11.7% abnormal reduction of capital expenditures and cause 3.1% cost of debt growth. Deals create small tax benefits: the median for the whole sample is 87.5 million rubles, or 1.4% of the median deal value.