Теория джихада и её эволюция в доосманский период
The study focuses on the writings of Russian doctors working in the Kazakh steppe during the C18th - early C20th. Largely neglected by previous scholarship, Russian doctors' accounts of everyday life of the steppe population present an important source on Kazakh healing practices in their connection with the nomads' religious beliefs.
Manuscripts are a significant part of the rich cultural heritage of the Mamluk period. Like a mirror, a wide range off hand-written texts reflects the cultural life in Mamluk Egypt and Syria. Some manuscripts of the Qur‘an are magnificent examples of calligraphy and illumination. The level of scientific knowledge demonstrate manuscripts on Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Astronomy; a selection of adab literature gives an opportunity to apprehend what cultural atmosphere in Cairo or Damascus might have been like. Works on kalam, fiqh and other religious disciplines written by Muslim scholars, who were a group of the local population, allowed to communicate with political elite and interacted with Mamluk sultans and emirs in some cases are important sources of cultural history of the period, as well as manuscripts on history, geography, genealogy, military art and encyclopedias.
The development of mutually advantageous commercial relations between Mamluk Sultanate and european countries promoted establishment of stable and regular transport connection between seaports of the Western and East Mediterranean. In 15ct the pilgrimage of Europeans to the Holy Land began to gain the organized character. Notes of travelers, whose way to Palestine passed through Alexandria and Cairo, represent important group of sources on history of Mamluk Egypt.