Рефактивы в абазинском языке
The paper discusses two ‘again’-markers (refactives) of Abaza, a polysynthetic North-West Caucasian language. The main property of the first ‘again’-marker (suffix -χ) is that it acquires various meanings depending on the semantics of the verb it combines with. Specifically, the most frequent meanings of suffix -χ are reditive (‘return to the starting point’), completive (‘finishʼ), responsive (‘response to a similar action’), and restitutive (repetition of an earlier state). The most widespread subtype of the ‘again’-meaning — the repetitive (‘do one more time’) — can apply to almost all verbs regardless of their semantics. In addition, there are some frequent uses of the suffix -χ in combination with other elements whose semantic links to the refactive proper are not immediately clear. The only meaning of the second ‘again’-marker (combination ata-+-χ) is repetitive but at the same time it can also preserve one of the subtypes of the ‘again’-marker -χ within the scope of the repetitive meaning. In this paper, I argue that the difference in behavior of ‘again’-markers in Abaza is explained by the different semantic scope of the affixes. While the marker -χ “sees” the internal structure of an event and can have scope over any part of it, the marker ata-+-χ is “blind” to the internal structure of the situation and can only “copy” the whole event with its arguments. Typologically, suffixes -χ and ata-+-χ in Abaza appear to represent examples of ‘heavy’ again-markers and ‘light’ again-markers respectively: light again-markers frequently occur in texts and form specific lexical collocations with certain verbs, while the meaning of heavy again-markers usually does not depend on particular verbs.