A contrastive analysis of Italian and Russian idioms of death: The JOURNEY metaphor
In this paper we propose a contrastive analysis of Italian and Russian idioms related to the domain of death. Death is a taboo concept which is very likely to be expressed through euphemisms and metaphors. The present analysis focuses on idioms implying the widespread DEATH IS A JOURNEY metaphor, which is based on the SOURCE-PATH-GOAL schema. The analysis reveals cross-linguistic similarities in the conceptualisation of death as a JOURNEY between Italian and Russian, where this metaphor is widely attested. In addition, we identify language-specific features regarding the ability of each language to focus on the source and/or goal of the metaphorical journey.
In this monograph the authors assert that Russian verbal prefixes always express meaning, even when they are used to form the perfective partners of aspectual pairs. The prefixes in verbs like написать/na-pisat' 'write' and сварить/s-varit' 'cook' have semantic purpose, even though the corresponding imperfective verbs писать/pisat' 'write' and варить/varit' 'cook' have the same lexical meanings. This suggests a new hypothesis, namely that the Russian verbal prefixes function as verb classifiers, parallel to numeral classifiers.
The exposition is designed to be theory-neutral and accessible to both linguists and nonlinguists. The studies make use of quantitative research on corpus data and statistical models (chisquare, logistic regression, etc.), which are presented in a common-sense way that assumes no special expertise. A user-friendly interactive webpage at http://emptyprefixes.uit.no/book.htm houses links to the authors' database, plus additional data from the studies cited.
This book narrates recent breakthroughs in research on Russian aspect and demonstrates a range of methodologies designed to probe the relationship between the meaning and distribution of linguistic forms. These methodologies are used to investigate the "empty" prefixes, alternating constructions, prefix variation, and aspectual triplets. Though these phenomena have long been known to exist, their extent and behavior have not been previously explored in detail.
The authors propose that the verbal prefixes select verbs according to broad semantic traits, categorizing them the way numeral classifiers categorize nouns. The purpose of the prefixes is to convert amorphous states and activities into discrete events and to group verbs according to the types of events they express. In other words, Russian prefixes are in effect a verb classifier system similar to those proposed for Mandarin Chinese, Hindi-Urdu, and a number of Australian languages, and this hypothesis facilitates cross-linguistic comparisons. The description of Russian prefixes as a verb classifier system furthermore has pedagogical value since curricula may be redesigned to teach students the system according to its meaningful groupings rather than simply requiring them to memorize hundreds of combinations of prefixes with simplex verbs.
In short, the proposal to recognize Russian prefixes as verb classifiers supports the community of people interested in Russian grammar to be better linguists, better instructors, and better learners.
Author presents results of the scientific seminar " Legal regulation of economic activities in China and Russia" (series" Legal aspects of BRICS " ), held in St. Petersburg by the Law Faculty of the Higher School of Economics - St. Petersburg Branch, with a participation of 15 colleagues from 6 universities of China.
The article describes the current tendency and challenges of philological characteristics of French the French popular language. The types of French sleng are marked out, indicating the linguistic units with the national cultural specific and information of lingvo-socio-cultural features of speech and nonlanguage behavior. The article observes and describes the expressive tools of the French language. There is the description of a cultural component of the process of studying and learning French from the perspective of intercultural communication.
In many languages of the world, the forms in the irrealis domain (subjunctive, conjunctive, conditional) are also used in complement clauses. The set of verbs that require subjunctive complementation is similar but not identical across languages. The paper identifies Russian verbs licensing subjunctive in complement clauses, either as the only option or as an alternative to the indicative. Basing on the Russian National Corpus, a list of these predicates is compiled, with relative frequencies of subjunctive vs. indicative for each predicate. The main result of the study is distinguishing two types of subjunctive complement clauses. Most predicates belong to the group which is similar to purpose clauses with чтобы, both semantically and syntactically. The subject of the main predicate is involved in the situation described by the subordinate clause by wishing it to be realized, by intention, or causal relations. The second, minor group includes epistemic uses of чтобы with e.g. сомневаться and other predicates in the context of negation, interrogation and other constructions expressing low probability.
The linguistic situation of modern Italy is characterized by presence of many dialects that often have an old literary tradition and are still vital. Regional dialects are constantly interacting with the national Italian language and even the standard Italian that the majority of Italians speak has some regional characteristics. Foreign students normally study the standard Italian used by mass media. However, studying this standard language they don't embrace the true Italian language reality. Therefore, it seems advisable to include in study program elements of country specific studies that give a wider perspective on the varieties of Italian.
The article describes practices of teaching business idioms at the seminars.
The article deals with the issue of teaching collocations and idioms within business English seminars.