Origins of the Shōnen-ai and Yaoi Manga Genres
This article discusses mainly the works of Japanese manga authors
of the 1970s – Takemiya Keiko and Hagio Moto, who created the manga genre
shōnen-ai (boys’ love). This manga genre, intended for female audiences and
developed in Japan, had been considerably influenced by European art, especially
by French literature and cinema. Such films as “This Special Friendship”
(1964) or works of Jean Cocteau and other French writers formed a special
aesthetics of manga about beautiful boys who love each other.
Discusses the works of Japanese manga authors of the 1970s – Takemiya Keiko and Hagio Moto, who created a new genre shounen-ai (boy’s love). This genre of manga is intended for female audiences and developed in Japan, but was experienced a considerable influence of European art, especially French literature and cinema.
The book consists of articles of Japanese and Russian researches devoted to humanities.
The article is devoted to a monument of Japanese Medieval literature “Izayoi nikki” written by Nun Abutsu (1221?–1283). This work most likely was gathered and compiled after Abutsu’s death in 1283. Despite the genre designation nikki (日記, “daily recording”, “diary”) Abutsu’s work differs from another traditional diaries by its contents, style, and composition.
“Izayoi nikki” – “The Diary of the Waning Moon” or “The Journal of the Sixteenth-Night Moon" – is not only interesting but also a very important work for the Medieval Japanese literature. First, it is popular among the Japanese, since today this diary is one of the most read works of the Kamakura period. Second, the research of “Izayoi nikki” in context of the diary literature, demonstrates development of a genre nikki. Moreover, the diary consists of about 90 poems, which are the great example of women’s poetry tradition at this time. Finally, the personality of the author herself is very appealing to research deeply. Abutsu was married a famous poet Fujiwara-no Tameie and, more likely, played a key role in dividing the Fujiwara house into three poetic schools (Nijo, Kyogoku and Reizei).
As the last famous work by a woman, as the best known diary or travel account in Japanese written between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, and as one of the five or six mostly read works of the Kamakura period, the “Izayoi nikki” has an important place in Japanese literature. “Izayoi nikki” gives valuable materials about culture and language of that time and definitely should be interesting for researches devoted to development of diary tradition in Japanese literature.
Japanese culture is famous for unique folklore, where monsters called yokai have become very popular. The visual appearance of many yokai occurred in the Edo period (1603-1868) and came to us thanks to the books printed by woodblock printing. The irrepressible imagination of Japanese artists of that time gave rise to amazing creatures, who continue to inspire filmmakers, animators and comic book authors to this day.
The works of the 5th vonference of youn japanologists (Moscow, 2013). The articles are dedicated to the variety of themes on Japan: history, economics, intellectual history, international relations.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a foreign culture poured into Russia in a powerful stream. The books of previously banned writers are beginning to be published, and comic books are also being actively promoted, including Japanese manga, about which former Soviet citizens heard for the first time. The spread of manga (and anime) abroad begins only in the mid-1980s, but already in the 1990s its first samples have reached Russia. Therefore in 1995 the first volume of Nakazawa Keiji's "Barefoot Gen", dated to the 50th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was published on Russian. But a year earlier another manga was released, today it can be considered the very first manga translated into Russian. It is symbolic that this was manga "Black Jack" by Tezuka Osamu. Thanks to Tezuka Osamu manga was developed into a huge industry during the postwar period and later was able to compete with American comic books and French comics band desine. Tezuka was a doctor by education and in this manga he combined his medical knowledge with the profession of mangaka. The main character Black Jack became a sort of Tezuka Osamu alter-ego and gained a great love of the readers. However, the existence of such a character, unlike, for example, American Mickey Mouse, was hardly known in Russia, so the first issues of Japanese comics were not in great demand. Despite this, in the narrow circle of domestic fans of Japanese animation and manga (otaku) the need for such kind of cultural products was brewing. In the late 1990s, with the development of computer technologies, amateur translations of manga on the Web, including the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet, are widely spread. There are exist informal publishers who publish an unlicensed manga (piratka) on paper. Subsequently, some of them are retrained into official companies, which will mark the appearance of the first Russian publishing houses translating manga in the early 2000s. In this regard, it is important to trace the contents of these works and the specifics of their publication, as well as the experience of publishers, who decided to translate Asian comics into Russian.