Всеволод Вишневский как культурный амбассадор: в поисках модернистской составляющей советской мысли
Тhe article is devoted to a special ideological posid of the playwright and publicist Vsevolod Vishnevsky, who even tried in the 1930s and mid-1940s, trying to focus on the achievements of the European avant-garde (J. Joyce, partly surrealists, etc.).
The mechanisms of increasing human longevity have been elucidated in part by observing vanguard groups whose mortality has decreased more quickly than the rest of the population. In the case of the three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) studied by Domantas Jasilionis, Vladimir Shkolnikov, Evgueni Andreev, Dmitri Jdanov, Denny Vågerö, France Meslé and Jacques Vallin, this pioneer group is made up of married, highly educated individuals. Using individual census-linked mortality data, the authors compare trends in life expectancy and mortality by cause of death between this vanguard group and the rest of the population from the 1970s to the 1990s. The study shows tha besides simply following directions shown by the vanguard groups, non-vanguard groups have their own pathways to low mortality which are related to specific determinants of mortality changes.
Based upon the theories of Western researchers such as W. Hane‑ graaff, A. Faivre, and E. Asprem, the paper offers an analysis of the relationship between science and “Western esotericism” in the 19th and early 20th century. It discusses the theory of “seculariza‑ tion of Western esotericism” that led to the formation of the two new distinct forms: “romanticism” and “occultism”. The fault line that divides them was the attitude toward modern science. “Occultism” of E. Blavatsky, A. Besant, C. Leadbeater, R. Steiner, A. Saint-Yves d’Alveydre, Papus, A. Stoker, and the Society for Psychical Research, was a form of adaptation of esotericism to new scientific, positivistic worldviews and procedures. By contrast, “romanticism,” represented by the “new alchemy” and “integral traditionalism,” asserted incom‑ patibility of esotericism and science and promoted esoteric knowledge as an irreconcilable alternative to the modern worldview.
The first scientific biography of Venedikt Erofeev
Linear increase in the best-practice (maximal among countries) life expectancy, known as the Oeppen– Vaupel line, is the most demonstrative image of longevity progress. This study is devoted to the analysis of trends in best-practice life expectancy across cohorts born in 1870 to 1950. Other than the conventional period life expectancy, cohort life expectancy measures the lifetime of real individuals from the population under consideration. Since mortality is mostly decreasing with time, period life expectancy in a given year is usually lower than cohort life expectancy for people born in the same year. The corresponding gap between period and cohort life expectancies increases with time. Our analysis is based on data for 24 developed countries from the Human Mortality Database for the period 1870 to 2008. To estimate life expectancy for non-extinct cohorts, we apply the Lee–Carter model to extrapolate mortality rates until the year 2050. The annual increase in the best-practice cohort life expectancy across cohorts born in 1870 to 1950 is 0,43 year, while the annual increment in the period life expectancy across the same range of years is equal to 0,28 year. The best-practice cohort life expectancy has increased from 53,7 years in 1870 to 83,8 years in 1950. During this time the gap between period and cohort life expectancies has increased from 1,2 to 10,3 years. Cohorts born in 1920 to 1950 will live longer than one can expect by looking at respective period mortality patterns. For these cohorts, the longest part of their additionally gained lifetime will be spent at ages 65 and older. This substantially changes the distribution of human lifetime among different stages of the life cycle.
A note about the story of Yuri Kazakov "There is a dog running"
Auch wenn die Namensgebung erst zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in den USA erfolgte, reichen in Europa die ersten Ansätze der Ideengeschichte viel tiefer in die Vergangenheit zurück. Im Laufe der letzten knapp einhundert Jahre erlebte die Ideengeschichtliche Forschung dabei ihre Höhen und Tiefen, wurde als interdisziplinäre Praxis mal mit Begeisterung, mal mit Reserve aufgenommen, ihre Begriffe immer wieder aufs Neue definiert und in manchen Sprachkontexten sogar durch neue ersetzt. Heutzutage – und neuerlich mit besonderer Übersetzung – wird verstärkt versuch zu bestimmen, was sie „eigentlich“ sein soll.
Bevor man aber zu einer Übereinkunft kommen kann, was die Ideengeschichte sei und was sie in Zukunft nicht sein soll, ist es nötig, die Vielfalt der Traditionen dieses immer wieder umgedachten Begriffs anhand ausgewählter Beispiele in einer Zwischenbilanz zu würdigen.
Biography of the poet Nikolai Oleinikov
The paper proposes an original research methodology in the field of intellectual history based on the theoretical achievements of the tradition of philosophy of language and philosophy of action, as well as the "pragmatic turn" in social sciences. The paper develops the concept of "thought style" as describing a possible object of historical research. As an illustration of this historical method, the paper analyzes the concepts of "Enlightenment" and "society" as applied to the Russian intellectual history of the late 18th - early 19th centuries.