Об именах царицы Агафьи Симеоновны Грушецкой
In the first article the history of the Old-Russian institution "poludie" is presented. In the second article the history of the Old-Russian office "posadnik" is presented.
The topic of the round table discussion opening this issue of the “Ural Historical Vestnik” is the history of the Romanov’s dynasty which was reigning in Russia in the 17th — early 20th centuries. In commemoration of the jubilee — 400 years of the dynasty’s accession to power — the participants of the discussion voiced their opinions on the issues related to the understanding of the importance of this event. How topical for the contemporary Russian society is the “Romanov’s story”? How and to what extent the process of the historical development of the country was related to the acts of the ruling dynasty and was corrected in accordance with its goals and attitudes? Why the three hundred years period of the Romanov’s reign which was marked by a series of undoubted victories and a growth of the Russian infl uence on the global arena ended with a national collapse and the death of the royal family? Was the pattern of alternating reforms and counter-reforms cycles, which served as the undercurrent of the whole Romanov’s period, characteristic for Russia in general, and, if so, what was its meaning? These were the questions to which the leading history scholars specializing in the history of the Romanov’s Russia attempted to fi nd the answers.
The author analyses four accounts of the Rostov and Vladimir chronicles on travels of kings Yuri "the Long-Armed" and Vsevolod "the Big Nest" through the Vladimir kingdom (1154, 1200 and two texts from 1190).These travels are called in the texts as polyud'e which was famous from the account of Constantine Porphyrogentis on Rus' (in his treatise De administrando imperii, 950s). Polyd'e as a journey through and around territories under one's control changed its forms since the mid-9 century to the late 12th century. It became more important as a means of administarion and communication of the elite and local communities.
The author puts a question how long the institute of poliud’e (known in Rus’ since the 9th century) functioned in the northeastern princedoms of Rus’. He studies the data on the two duties “liudskoe” and “poliudnaia pshenitsa” which are mentioned in some bishopric immunity charters of the 15-16th centuries and which are allegedly (etymologically) connected to the ancient poliud’e. He rejects this connection and concludes that the poliud’e disappeared in the northeastern princedoms of Rus’ since they had been conquered by the Mongols and obliged to pay them a tribute in the mid-13th century.
The notion of honor (čest’) was crucial to a person’s social status in Old Rus’. The analysis presented in the article shows that the notion’s sense differed basically from a modern one and was not directly analogous to a West-European feudal one. The main meaning of the old-Russian word čest’ was ‘respect’, ‘esteem’, but it also meant a rank, a status or a power and, on the other hand, such visual and material forms expressing “the respect” as bow, gift, reward, escort etc. In the Christian context the notion related to values emanating from eternal and imperishable God and, consequently, to a dignity of persons touched by God’s blessing.