Conjunction of EAEU and the Belt and Road Initiative: Challenges and Opportunities for Europe
Despite their differences, the EU and Chinese approaches to logistic connectivity are complementary, rather than competing. Europe does not have the same financial resources to invest in infrastructure as China does, but it does have considerable expertise in the establishment of strong investment, labor, and environmental standards. Through enhanced coordination in the area of soft infrastructure, the EU could foster the adoption of its regulatory practices and principles as a model for a common connectivity framework with the rest of Eurasia. This interest could best be served by initiating cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union.
Sustainable development is an important concept for modern policymakers. To encourage people and businesses to act more responsibly and work towards sustainability, the states may introduce the tax incentives aimed respectively – at achievement certain goals in technological, ecological and social areas. EAEU Member States – Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia – adopted some tax measures which may be described as aimed at sustainable development, mostly in respect of personal development, R&D and their implementation. However, the paper shows that the efficiency of these measures is inconclusive, as the indicators in respective areas change differently than could be expected based solely on tax measures.
The building of an increasingly integrated system from an economic point of view in the “Eurasian” space is a phenomenon superficially evaluated by that broad part of the Western literature which simply includes it in the general claim of Russia to win lost territories of the former Trsarist and Soviet Empires. It is therefore considered an almost pretentious project when analyzed from a purely geopolitical perspective rather than economic. Such kind of approach may, however, be short-sighted, in the absence of a detailed study of the complex roots or the historical, cultural and economic conditions justifying the integration on the former Soviet Union space, and in particular on the Eurasian one.
The present volume contains the contributions of experts from different disciplines with different sensitivity and national memberships. The hot confrontation between speakers from Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania on the one hand and Russia on the other seems to be constructive, a positive model of interaction between historically and geographically close worlds even if in a period of tough opposition.
In this article the author performs the comparative analysis of the provisions of international treaties forming the Eurasian Economic Union and its predecessors and of the documents containing national tax policies of EAEU Member States. While author’s previous research suggested a number of similar features of EAEU Member States’ tax systems and partial harmonization, this time it is supplemented with conclusion of open tax competition waged by certain EAEU Member States.
This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative. This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to trans- port and logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slowdown and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of northwest China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capac- ity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of allegedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen industrial co- operation among neighbouring countries to develop new economic clusters. Third, the EEU and the Silk Road may become the basis for more ambitious cooperation in greater Eurasia, which may transform into a new centre of economic develop- ment at the global level.
This volume analyzes the evolution of geo-political and economic integration in the Eurasian area. The Eurasian integration is a growing phenomenon and the largest scale analysis proves necessary to avoid simplistic judgments based only on the geo-political approach. The editors of this publication present different profiles of integration, such as the geo-political and constitutional aspect, the relations with the European Union, migration issues, energy flows, the compatibility between the Eurasian and the WTO law, and the comparison with the European integration model. The book presents a wide range of viewpoints through essays of specialists from Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, Italy, France.
This article analyses prospects for changes in the status of unrecognized states in Greater Eurasia. Status and recognition are often regarded as closely associated but still different categories in international relations (IR) theory and international law. Status defines a state’s rank in the international hierarchy because the international system itself is hierarchical. Recognition is a different category; it defines whether other countries recognize the state as full-fledged and sovereign. Sovereignty is a third category related to recognition, but not equal to it, as it is divided into internal and external (international). There are examples of internally sovereign states that effectively control their territories and collect taxes but are not recognized by other states. This article focuses on whether an unrecognized state can strengthen its status and gain a firmer foothold on the international scene. The article shows that this is possible, and that the absence of international recognition is not an insurmountable impediment to such country’s survival and economic development.
The article aims to conceptualize the economic model of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), to fi nd similarities with the European Union single market model, to identify critical remarks on the part of the EU, to estimate the perspectives of integration in a wide space from Lisbon to Vladivostok, Astana and Bishkek. The author comes to the following conclusions. 1) The EAEU complies with canons formed by the EU and is being built with due regard to the European integration experience. The common external tariff, the “four freedoms” of the internal market and principles of its organization – the prohibition of discrimination, harmonization, mutual recognition of standards, conformity mark, common sectoral policies, logic of neofunctionalism – all these regulation elements are present in both models. 2) Russia considers cooperation with the EU as positive, because it has gained regulation methods for the traditionally controlled market and strengthened its global position due to this cooperation. 3) The EU makes a signifi cant indirect impact on the Eurasian integration through criticism and expansion of peculiar approaches. Part of the criticism is of temporary or politicized character. 4) The EAEU has a strong starting idea – common history, common genetics and the need to preserve achievements in exploration and development of the vast Eurasian space. 5) An opportunity for interaction between the EU and the EAEU derives from the convergence of regulatory systems. However, high degree of state participation in economies of the EAEU countries, which distinguishes the Eurasian model from the European one and has become an irritant in the EU–EAEU relations, will continue to hinder “the integration of integrations”.