Globalization of Education in the Conditions of Formation of the Global Knowledge Economy: Regularities and Tendencies
The purpose of the work is to determine the regularities and tendencies of globalization of education in the conditions of formation of the global knowledge economy, to compile forecasts of future development of this process, and to determine the conditions and factors of its acceleration and to develop recommendations for managing these factors. Methodology: The authors use theoretical (qualitative) methods of scientific research—systemic, problem, logical, and process analysis; and practical (quantitative) methods of scientific research—trend and regression analysis. Regression analysis is used for determining the dependence of the indicators of globalization of education on the indicators of formation of knowledge economy. As specialized indices of globalization of education are absent, and target statistical accounting of this process is not conducted, the research objects include universities from nine countries of the world, which show the highest global competitiveness according to the QS in 2018, and from Russia. Results: In the course of the research, the authors have not determined statistically significant influence of various indicators of knowledge economy (export of hi-tech, state expenditures for R&D and for education) on the indictors of globalization of education (global competitiveness of the leading national university, share of foreign lecturers and foreign students). This excludes mutual influence of knowledge economy and globalization of education and shows that this process is unidirectional—globalization of education stimulates the formation of the global knowledge economy. It is not possible to determine clear quantitative regularities due to statistical insignificance of the obtained regression models—however, the tendencies of globalization of education are found—reduction of the share of foreign lecturers and increase of the share of foreign students in 2016–2018, which reflect contradiction of this process and its slow rate. Recommendations: Framework recommendations are offered for managing the factors of globalization of education: development of remote education, adoption of international standards of education, issue of international diplomas, and increase of flexibility of the educational process.