Sustainable Socio-economic Systems
The existing conceptual treatment of the essence of sustainable socio-economic systems is specified by substantiating that these systems develop not only harmoniously in the aspect of balance of social, economic, and ecological development but also in a stable way in the aspect of low volatility of GDP per capita in current prices. This treatment is interesting from the scientific and practical points of view for development and implementation of state policy in the sphere of managing sustainable development of economy.
We expect economic growth to remain strong in Poland and Latvia in 2016. Despite this robust growth, the new Polish government is likely to soften monetary and fiscal policies to further stimulate the economy, in our view. In 2015, the Latvian economy demonstrated strong resilience to external shocks.
The essay focuses in the issue of sustainable healthcare systems development, in the poorest countries particular, and the taken measures to tackle it in three main areas: maternity care, children's mortality reduction and struggle against HIV/AIDS and other dangerous diseases. The author highly estimates the impact of intellectual property rights on the possibilities for providing universal access to medical services in the developing countries.
The institute of investment operations guarantees is designed to ensure, through legal measures, a relative stability of reproduction and freedom of capital movement in the world economic system amid the backdrop of social, economic and political crisis. The notion of investment guarantee stands for the investment insurance mechanism both on the state and the state-by-state basis, aimed at compensation for damages caused to a foreign investor upon occurrence of events economically affecting the investment. The article discusses the activity of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) established under the Seoul Convention. MIGA's guarantee opportunities, conditions for granting investment guarantees and risks which could be covered by the Agency's guarantees are specified.
This paper focuses on the period beginning with 1998, with only a brief reference to early reform initiatives of the G8. It will examine and comment on reform proposals as well as reforms actually achieved or underway. It will pay particular attention to the reform dimension of the evolving G5, Heiligendamm Process, BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China), Major Economies Meeting and G20 groupings, and to the G8's relationship to these structures. The chapter concludes with outlining possible trajectories of G8 reform.
Five papers analyze the bidirectional relationship between poverty and migration in developing countries. Papers discuss the patterns of migration in Tanzania (Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon); work-related migration and poverty reduction in Nepal (Michael Lokshin, Mikhail Bontch-Osmolovski, and Elena Glinskaya); the evolution of Albanian migration and its role in poverty reduction (Carlo Azzarri, Gero Carletto, Benjamin Davis, and Alberto Zezza); migration choices, inequality of opportunities, and poverty reduction in Nicaragua (Edmundo Murrugarra and Catalina Herrera); and how developing country governments can facilitate international migration for poverty reduction (John Gibson and David McKenzie). Murrugarra is Senior Economist in the Latin America and Caribbean Region at the World Bank. Larrison is a PhD candidate and Assistant Teacher in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at George Washington University. Sasin is Economist in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department at the World Bank. Index.
The purpose of the work is to model disproportions in development of regional economy of Russia and to determine perspectives and recommendations for overcoming them and achieving the balance of the economy. The applied methods are based on Popkova's methodology of calculation of “underdevelopment whirlpools,” which allows conducting dynamic modeling of disproportions in development of regional economy. The research is performed in three consecutive stages. At the first stage, the dynamic model of development of the Russia's regional economy is compiled with the help of the methodology of “underdevelopment whirlpools” in federal districts of the Russian Federation based on GDP per capita. At the second stage, the key factors of emergence of disproportions in development of the Russia's regional economy are determined and models of multiple regression of development of the Russia's regional economy are compiled. At the third stage, target parameters of the determined factors are set for reducing the “underdevelopment whirlpools” in the Russia's regional economy by automatized solution of the optimization task with application of the simplex method and recommendations for overcoming the disproportions in development of the Russia's regional economy are compiled. As a result, it is concluded that regional economy of Russia is not well-balanced, as it has deep structural disproportions. These disproportions are caused by insufficient attention to peculiarities of regional economic systems during development and implementation of regional strategies of state management of economy. For more precise accounting of the influence of the key factors of appearance of disproportions and highly-effective management of them for overcoming the “underdevelopment whirlpools,” the algorithm of overcoming the disproportions in development of the Russia's regional economy is developed by the authors, which envisages various managerial measures depending on peculiarities of each Russian region.