Паттерны жилищной мобильности белых и синих воротничков
The article attempted to analyze the categories of "dwelling" and "accommodation" with the doctrinal and normative point of view. Analyzed the jurisprudence of the Perm region in matters of classification of premises in office and industrial buildings to the category of dwelling. Attempted to identify the criteria for allocation to the residential premises.
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
One of the most important results of the economic reforms in the housing sector initiated by the law “On Privatization of Housing in the RSFSR” in July 1991 is a fundamental change in the role played by the federal government in the functioning and development of the housing sector. Critically, the government stopped operating as the principal centralized source of housing construction finance. Simultaneously, an attempt was made to improve targeting of government investments in the housing sector, which, despite acute budget deficits, the state continued to provide for the social policy goals. The intensive restructuring of the housing finance system driven by the critical condition of the state budget was truly unprecedented. Before the economic reform started in 1991, the budget was responsible for almost 80 percent of the total volume of new housing. By mid-1999 the share of developers in state ownership was down to 11.3 percent, with only 8.6 percent of the housing built by developers in federal ownership.
The empirical data of this article include interviews with 21 families, which were collected in 1992–1994 in Moscow in the project «Paths of generations in Russia». Basing on secondary analysis, we constructed families’ trajectories of housing mobility and classifi ed them into three types: professional moves, educational moves, and unstable housing situation caused by war evacuations.
Characteristics is given to the concepts “housing”, “residential premise”; legal category “residential premise” is considered from the point of view of embodiment of national (basic) standard housing, established by the State; system of viewpoint of European Court in Human Rights under the name “concept of housing” developing from authority to authority is being analyzed; the issue of diffusion of inter-subject concepts “housing” and “residential premise” in connection with the process of State integration into common legal and economic European space is being considered; the shortcomings of legal definition “residential premise” are being disclosed, as not reflecting its essence, purposefulness and variety of forms of its existence; in this respect the main conclusion on introduction of changes into art.15 and 16 of Housing Code has been made.