Социальная мобильность в усложняющемся обществе: объективные и субъективные аспекты
The monograph contains the results of large-scale collective project on Integrated Studies of social mobility in modern Russia. Theoretical and empirical analysis are based on the proposed authors multidimensional social mobility concepts or concepts “Broad life changes” that take into account different dimensions of social and spatial movements. In the object of researchers interest included social strata that are at different poles of the social hierarchy and representing both "top" and and the "bottoms" of Russian society. Combined methodological approach and use of mix methods allows you to present the processes mobility as through the lens of representative population polls, and through these interviews. In addition to objective characteristics of social mobility considered more complex phenomena associated with subjective mobility, such as habitus, motivational repertoire of mobility, social and cultural capital. Monograph supplement and enrich the materials of external participants, including international, working in similar paradigms.
This chapter examines the evolution of the concepts of the elite, including some country features of the recruitment process to the elite, as well as features of social mobility within the elitist orpus itself. The inter-country comparison of national elites, not exhausted by the above country examples, convinces the nationality of the elite phenomenon and the need for historization in analyzing it. National contexts of mobilization are clearly different from each other and to varying degrees determine the system of social inequality, since the elites are fragmented, encapsulated and guard their borders.
In this chapter, we will look at the subjective and objective aspects of educational and professional trajectories in the careers of the leaders of large corporations as representatives of the management elite. At the conceptual level, here we operate with a number of concepts - life path, career trajectory, transitions, turning points, as well as in the subjective aspect of social mobility - the dynamics of status identity as a delegated social actor to narrativize the subjectively important turning points of the educational and professional trajectory. In empirical terms, we involve both the narrative, the origin of which is in the biographical interview, and the respondent’s publicly disclosed data in the form of several summaries reflecting the mobility of his status identity. In addition, the empirical summary array of CEOs of large corporations on the subject of the obtained qualification level for the head of the company, the time spent on the upward trajectory of a representative of the management elite, the differences associated with generational cohorts, as well as the specifics of social and professional mobility from previous professional groups.
This chapter will discuss a fairly new phenomenon for Russian entrepreneurship - the prospect of continuity in business and wealth, involving the second generation in the family of entrepreneurs in the business of parents. Estimates of the chances of a second generation, potential successors, for the reproduction of social status and the successful transfer of business are quite high. This is facilitated by starting opportunities, first of all, the value homogeneity of parents and children, as well as an unprecedented high level of professional training, as an object of parents' investment in the future of both the children and business. The risks of unsuccessful business transfer also have the contours indicated by the research: they are associated with a more critical assessment by the successors of the availability of intra-family discourse to discuss both business issues and well-being.