Проблема рефлексивности в методологии Г. В. Ф. Гегеля, Л. С. Выготского, П. Бурдье
This paper proposes a rethinking and comparison of habitus concept of P. Bourdieu in the context of the dialectical tradition of V. G. Hegel and the concept of human thinking and speech L. S. Vygotsky, designed to demonstrate the complementarity of the contribution of authors to build a reflexive sociological theory. The formation of this theory was one of the goals of the sociologist P. Bourdieu. The coice of authors is made due to similar logic of theoretical insights in their works.
This collection of papers includes the materials of the XX International scientific conference "Ilyenkov Readings: Ilyenkov and psychology" (Second meeting: may 15-16, 2018, Moscow). The materials of the collection reflect the main content of the oral discussion of problems related to the understanding of the Marxist approach to human education. The content has philosophical and methodological nature, presented through the theoretical positions of E. V. Ilyenkov, L. S. Vygotsky.
Human rationality is often assumed to be based on the logical relation of transitivity. Yet, although transitivity fits relationships between physical objects or human decisions about targets that are independent of one another, it fails to fit the phenomena of systemic and developmental organization. Intransitivity has been shown to be present in various kinds of systems, ranging from the brain to society. In cyclical systems transitivity constitutes a special case of intransitivity. In this chapter, we examine different forms of emergence of intransitivity cycles, fixation of transitive parts in these cycles, and the organization of different levels of reflexivity within the systems. We conclude that reflexivity of cognitive processes—rather than transitivity in specific forms of thought—is the defining criterion of rationality.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics - the ontological argument better known as the ontological argument of evidence for God's existence. The ontological argument is a logical nonsense for classical the subject - object relation; it becomes the natural phenomenon in the reflexive systems including cognitive activity of the subject as an element of the functioning and existence. The concept of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyze argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology in the course of the Western philosophy development. From the standpoint of the received results, the methodological problems of economic science related to the alienation and also the reflexive paradoxes encountered within sociology of knowledge are analyzed in the last part of the book. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The paper addresses the controversial question to which extent Augustine's views on dialectic have changed during his intellectual development. It argues that there is a high probability that Augustine changed his views in response to apparent misuse of dialectical tools by defenders of the Arian heresy – a misuse explicitly criticised by Ambrose of Milan whose influence on Augustine should not be underestimated. In De Doctrina Christiana Augustine abandons his earlier view that dialectic is a tool for gaining new knowledge. But it can nevertheless have a valid role in Christian education and hermeneutics, because it allows to test the formal validity of inferences.
By defining the structure of thought and psyche content it has been indicated that the consciousness is the functional element of the psyche actualized by a subject to organize its life activity. The thought with its operations is considered as the mechanism of consciousness. It has been argued that the reflection is put on the thinking and there is no reason to consider it separately from thought. In keeping with this argumentation it has shown that all cognitive processes could be divided into two categories: the processes that support the mental activity and the processes that acts as the mechanisms of that support. Based on the investigation of thought and mind relationship the psychological content interpretation of such operation as the judgment, mental decision, and reasoning
The paper discusses the phenomenon of self-reflection as a philosophical issue, as an object of psychological investigation and as a characteristic of human existence. The paper is focused on the problem of ambivalence of self-reflective processes. Some studies highlight the connection of self-reflection with depression, neuroticism and pessimism while other works underline the positive role of self-reflection in adjustment and self-regulation processes. To resolve this contradiction a differential model of self-reflection which distinguishes several types of reflective self-attitude including types supporting and hindering effective self-regulation of life activity is proposed.