Структура и динамика курения в России в 1994 - 2016 г.г.
The article analyzes the structure and dynamic of tobacco consumption in Russia in the period between 1994 and 2016. We rely on “Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics” (RLMS‑HSE) to assess tobacco consumption and smoking habits in various sociodemographic groups. As data shows, tobacco consumption went down in all those groups, with the notable exception of women, who tended to smoke more in 2016, compared to the previous years of observations. The age of the first cigarette use also dropped among women. Although there was little change in how much tobacco people consumed on a daily basis since 1994, the general preferences shifted. The number of people smoking filter tip cigarettes grew almost twofold, surging from 54 percent in 1994 to 95 percent in 2016. To further explore socio-economic factors of tobacco consumption, we estimate a regression model with a Heckman-type correction to attend to the sample selection bias. We use a probit regression model to explore which factors impact the decision to start smoking and, then, a linear regression model to assess the influence of various factors on the level of tobacco consumption. As our analysis shows, men are still more likely to start smoking than women. The high household income per capita and the high price of non-Russian brands of cigarettes decrease the likelihood of smoking initiation. Co-residing smokers, on the contrary, increase it. Men smoke on average more than women. Adults smoke more than teenagers and young adults (aged 16–24), and the elderly. Higher education and a relatively high level of life-satisfaction are associated with the lower levels of tobacco consumption, while the years of smoking have the reverse effect.