Russia's transition to an innovation-based growth: problems and opportunities
For at least the last 10 years, the Russian authorities have been declaring the need to move to an innovative path of economic development. The government actively initiates and applies various instruments and measures to promote innovation. However, the effectiveness of the Russian innovation policy is still in question. The chapter examines the evolution of state policy to foster innovation growth in Russia since 2000 and describes some sets of achievements and problems for different stages of this policy. In addition to analysis of changes in the innovation sphere at the macro-level, we discuss the primary motivations and limitations at the micro-level (firm level). As a result, the critical institutional barriers to innovation-based growth are revealed. In the same time, certain successes have been achieved in some sectors, and we consider various opportunities to improve Russian technological and innovation policy.
Russia is one of the world's largest growing economies. With this exciting new growth and development, there is a wealth of knowledge to be discovered from the strategies and models being used and created throughout Russia’s economy.
Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Russia portrays and sets pieces of Russia's growth strategies to produce an extraordinary record of economic analysis. A leading expert in emerging markets, editor Bruno S. Sergi and a cast of experienced Russian academics offer a wealth of questions and critical examples on Russia that are delivered through a sound framework and provide unique knowledgeable support and interdisciplinary research about modeling a sound growth strategy for Russia. Through various chapters on financial development and economic growth, Sergi explores the fascinating landscape of Russia's economy, including chapters on green investment; education and inclusive development; sustainability; smart cities; international cooperation; and innovation-based growth.
For anyone interested in international economics, or students of emerging economies and markets, this is a fundamental study of an area that has never before been studied in such depth.
The White Paper provides a knowledge-base on the state of affairs of STI policies in the EU Member States and the European Neighbourhood, and in the Central Asian countries, identifies a series of challenges and recommendations on enhancing the EU-EECA STI cooperation and proposes a short-term implementation scenario to a variety of stakeholders.
The findings of the White Paper are based on a broad methodological approach: analytical desk research concerning a variety of EU programmes and instruments was complemented by interviews with policy stakeholders and representatives of the science and innovation communities in the EECA region, as well as by mutual learning exercises, discussions at STI policy stakeholders’ conferences in Athens, Moscow, Astana, Warsaw, and expert meetings on ENPI and DCI as well as meetings of NCP. The presentation of the draft of the present White Paper during the Warsaw Conference was followed by an open web-based consultation process of the wider public, which resulted in additional feed-back.
The White Paper presents a knowledge based approach to tackling major issues of relevance for enhancing STI cooperation between the EU and EECA countries. However, it should be perceived as experts’ advice that neither reflects the official positions of individual countries nor of the European Commission. Stakeholders from the policy sector as well as from the science and innovation communities and civil societies in both regions are invited to reflect on the recommendations given in this White Paper and to draw their own conclusions for joint concrete actions to prioritize and implement in favour of advancing the bi-regional cooperation in science, technology and innovation.
The chapter deals with the new directions of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in Russia, initiatives and tendencies of the STI development that surfaced over the past years.
In spite of the “Lukashenko ultimatum” given to Belarusian science at the end of 2011, the status quo was still maintained and promised reforms were stalled. Attempts to initiate “internal competition” between academic and university science ran into obstacles due to the inertia of the former and inactivity of the latter. The announced transformation of the funding structure and the increased actual costs for financing scientific, technical, and innovation activity did not change the longstanding trend of science being chronically underfunded. The key problem of linking science with business and industry was still not resolved. Apart from some minor improvements to the situation regarding postgraduates in several disciplines, the general trend of downsizing and ageing of scientific staff continued. Positive results during the year included: improved research intensity figures (up from 0.7% in 2011 to 1% in 2012); Belarus’ rising international ratings (from 52nd to 45th place, according to the Knowledge Index; from 73rd to 59th place, according to the Knowledge Economic Index; and 6th place worldwide for the number of patent applications filed); and various successes in the information technology field.
The scope for Foresight studies to contribute to S&T strategy development, at different levels of governance, is growing. But little is known about the actual implementation of the results of Foresight studies, even though these aim to improve innovation capacities and national innovation systems. The design and initiation phase of Foresight studies include the setting of objectives and the identification of themes for the exercise. These activities need to be aligned to the broader perspective and mission of the initiator – and, importantly, to the tendering procedure for launching Foresight activities. At national (and international) level it would be valuable to establish networks and a central database collecting the experiences of these studies, to make them accessible and useful for future Foresight studies. The main focus of such efforts should be on the procedural dimension – learning from the Foresight processes and their organization. Currently Foresight studies are mainly used for detecting future social challenges, potential technological developments, and associated gaps and requirements for immediate, mid-term and long-term measures. Foresight studies also have the potential, we argue, to be used for the assessment of potential policy measure impacts and the identification of the next generation of innovation policy related measures. This new application of Foresight approaches is likely to arise in the near future.
In the first two months of 2014, the State Committee for Science and Technology (SCST) did not submit traditionally optimistic reports on the advancement of science in 2013. The National Academic of Science of Belarus (NASB) made even more optimistic one instead. In 2013, a reform of the science sector entered an open phase after the NASB presented a draft scientific development program.
The science sector saw a number of stuff reductions and reshuffles. Thirty-one legislative acts were issued to regulate scientific and innovative activities. However, taken together, all these measures create an ambivalent impression, showing the problem of coherence of education and science reforms.
The BRICS countries have come a long way in terms of science and related fields, but there is still much that the group could do concerning multilateral cooperation to encourage innovation and address its members’ common challenges.
The book gives practical guidance for policy makers, analysts and researchers on how to make the most of the potential of Foresight studies. Based on the concept of evidence-based policy-making, Foresight studies are common practice in many countries and are commonly understood as a supportive tool in designing future-oriented strategies. The book outlines approaches and experiences of integrating such Foresight studies in the making and implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies at different national levels. It delivers insights into practical approaches of developing STI policy measures oriented towards future societal and technological challenges based on evidence drawn from comparable policy measures worldwide. Authors from leading academic institutions, international organizations and national governments provide a sound theoretical foundation and framework as well as checklists and guidelines for leveraging the potential impact of STI policies.
Science, technology and innovation (STI) policies are topics that has been much written about in the last decades. However until today no common understanding has been articulated on what these policy fields are and how they are correlated in daily practice of policy making. The book thus pursuits a completely new approach, which goes much beyond existing practices. For the first time the concept of evidence based science, technology and innovation policy making is elaborated and put into context with Foresight studies. Foresight studies are commonly understood as a measure supporting governments, public agencies and companies in designing future oriented strategies. The editorial book brings together contributions from leading international scientists, representatives of national governments and international organisations like the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.