Психология и социология социальных проблем: сходство и различия подходов
The book includes the result of social researches in diiferent fields of modern sciense represented on the conference in Canada..
The article presents the experience of constructing of the social problems by students and teacher within the sociological course. Last years the course “Sociology of Social Problems” includes optional actionist part with a claims-making concerning some situations. The article describes actions made by the participants of the course with the aim to include in the city agenda such problems as the destroying of one of the famous historical buildings in Kazan (Karl Fuchs House), the inaccessibility of urban space for disabled people and the imposing of the music and ads on the pedestrians. The influence of such constructionist projects and their alleged significance for the students are discussed. In conclusion some questions concerning the transition from traditional teaching of sociology towards the teaching connected with the sociological intervention are formulated.
The report presents the results of the study of claims-making in the LiveJournal posts about police and prison violence in Russia. The study is based on two cases: violence against the detainee Sergei Nazarov in the police department "Dalny" in Kazan in March 2012, which became the cause of his death, and open letters sent by Pussy Riot member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova from penal colony located in Mordovia in September and October 2013. The data highlight, firstly, the dominant retranslating function of the blogosphere and its weak mobilizing function, secondly, the similarity of rhetorical idioms used in these two cases, in particular, the rhetoric of endangerment (to citizens from authorities) and rhetoric of calamity (focused on Vladimir Putin’s presidency), third, attempts to legitimize violence against detainees and prisoners, fourthly, the systemic bloggers’ perception of processes in Russian police, prisons and penal colonies, fifth, the dominance of civic and sarcastic styles of claims-making in the blogosphere.
The article presents the results of the study into the rhetoric of youth in Dagestan about those who joined ISIL. The authors reconstruct the everyday discourse of the “outgo to ISIL” among the youth in the region, presented by Russian authorities and media as one of the leading regions in terms of the number of ISIL followers. The research focus is not on the public forms of the constructing of social problems, but on the everyday talk, in particular, of the claims made in the course of in-depth interviews. The study is based on the constructionist research program developed by Peter Ibarra and John Kitsuse, and focuses on the identification of the discursive ways of problematization used by Dagestan youth in relation to “outgo to ISIL” and “outgoing” young people. The young Dagestanians occasionally use the rhetoric of endangerment, including the metaphor of a “virus”. However, the dominant rhetoric is the rhetoric of unreason. The terms used in the description of those who “went to ISIL” correspond to this idiom’s vocabulary. The image of manipulation which is central for the rhetoric of unreason is detailed by constructing the image of “recruiter”. One of the identified features of the talk of the “outgo to ISIL” was episodic, that is, different from the previous and subsequent phrases and utterances of young people in accordance with the official discourse, supposedly in order to protect themselves from a possible suspicion of sympathy for ISIL. However, the rhetoric of unreason indicates a lack of social distance between young Dagestanians and those who have “went”. Informants express regret and sympathy in relation to their families, and link the “outgo to ISIL” with unemployment. The informants’ utterances suggest the need for the development of social policy, education, and employment opportunities in Dagestan, rather than the strengthening of repressive measures.
The question of social problems often meets with a central epistemological issue; how do we know that a given social problem actually exists? This article takes on this issue with a constructionist approach, employing the rhetorical deconstruction of media discourse witnessed in the work of Ibarra and Kitsuse. In such terms a social problem does not exist independently, it can only be considered to exist with reference to some linguistic version that produces it. Social Constructionism is seen to be the most suitable approach for the research of the processes of media communication as it allows the researcher to deconstruct this discourse into its constituent fragments, which can then be analysed . A review of this theory is provided to acquaint the reader with the strength of this approach. The media world is seen as a place that, rather than faithfully reflecting social reality, actually contributes to the construction of social reality. The focus of this article is the application of constructionism to the talk show ‘Gordon Quixote’, which is dedicated to discussion of the ‘social issue’ of glamour. The analysis of this programme allows us to reveal the strategies of problematisation and deproblematisation of glamour as a social and cultural phenomenon. This leads the author to the conclusion that television programmes are creating only the appearance of public discussion on the ‘hot topics’ of the day, in as far as they choose what things to make into ‘hot topics’. This means the creation of ‘scarecrow’ topics that are not really connected to serious issues. The presenter can take on the role of the knight furiously fighting windmills in the classic quixotic sense. The great source of excitement in the mass media is linked with the internal prerogative to successfully market one’s programming and appear ‘non-conformist’ in the treatment of issues before a skeptical audience.