СВЯЗЬ УРОВНЯ ДИФФЕРЕНЦИАЦИИ "Я" И СТИЛЯ ПРИВЯЗАННОСТИ
The results of the pilot empirical study of the relationship between the differentiation of self and attachment styles are presented. It is shown that highly differentiated people are less prone to relational anxiety. The highest overall level of differentiation is observed in people with the dismissing style, the least –with the preoccupied one. The secure attachment style is distinguished by the acceptance of one's own I-position and by the lowest tendency to emotional cut-off, by the average level of emotional reactivity and fusion.
he research is devoted to investigating the perspectives of the implication of the concepts of romantic attachment styles, psychological separation from parents and ethnic identity types to the studies of relationships in interethnic couples. The participants there were 114 women who were marriage with a representative of the titular nationality of one of 6 European countries: Germany, Holland, Spain, Italy, Portugal, France and living in their husbands’ countries and 84 women, married with a representative of their own nationality and living in Russia. Peculiarities of attachment to spouses and separation from the parents of women in interethnic marriages compared with women in monoethnic marriages. The correlations between above-mentioned attachment relationships and ethnic identity types are considered. It is shown that women from interethnic couples differ both in a more reliable attachment style and in more harmonious separation from their parents. However, their styles of ethnic identity are more conflict in comparison with women in mono-ethnic marriage. The degree of harmony of ethnic identity style is inversely related to the reliability and harmony of relationships with both parents and spouse, but for women in monoethnic marriage it is more associated with relationships with their parents, and for women in interethnic marriage – with relationships with their spouse.
A comparative study of ethnic identity styles in correlation with the styles of attachment in a couple and separation from the parental family of women who are in intercultural and monocultural marriages is carried out. The main sample consisted of 198 Russian women aged from 21 to 55 years old (M = 36.1), including 84 women married to a representatives of their culture and lived in Russia, 114 - married to representatives of the titular nationality of one of 6 European countries and lived in the countries of their husbands. The following methods were used: “Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment – MIMARA” (Brennan, Shaver, 1995), adapted by Kryukova, Ekimchik (2016), “Attachment to Close People Inventory” (Sabelnikova, Kashirsky, 2015), “Questionnaire of psychological separation” by J. Hoffman (1984), adapted by Sadovnikova, Dzukaeva (2014), a Method for diagnosing types of ethnic identity (Soldatova, Ryzhova, 1998).
In general, the results of the study showed that women in interethnic marriages living in a foreign cultural environment, have more secure and positive attachment relationships, both with their parents and with their spouses; but their ethnic identity style is more extreme and is associated with internal conflict. Women from intercultural marriages revealed different features of ethnic identity depending on the length of their marriage. It is shown that the style of ethnic identity is closely connected with the attachment relationships. For women in a mono-ethnic marriage living in their native country, it is more associated with separation from parents, and for women in an interethnic marriage living in a foreign country, it is closer associated with attachment to their husbands. In both cases, positive ethnic identity is associated with unsecure attachment and dependence, and extreme forms of ethnic identity are associated with secure attachment and personal autonomy in relationships.
The results of this study allow the specialists to take into account the specific social situation of interethnic couples more accurately in the course of psychological, social and other assistance to such couples, to develop constructive ways of discussing and maintaining cultural differences in the couple.
Closeness is one of predictors of stability and satisfaction with romantic relationships. Despite the large number of studies intersubjective perspective on the phenomenon is not fully disclosed in the literature. In particular, few works are devoted to the dynamics of I providing this special kind of experience of pre-reflective connectedness among people. Based on the concept of the reflected agency of V. A. Petrovsky and on the principles of a new personology (V. A. Petrovsky, E. B. Starovoitenko), the article considers closeness as a special experience of connection with others, achieved through reciprocal representation of reflected agency (otherness, to which I do not want to resist). In accordance with the levels of reflected agency, three levels of closeness are described, and important aspects that constitute the phenomenon (risk, authentic expression of emotions, alternation of openness and delimitation in relationships) are revealed.
The study aimed to explore the predictors of existential fulfilment in close relationship, an operationalization of relationship quality based on Längle’s existential analytic approach, using a cross-sectional design. The participants were 309 adults who completed an online questionnaire. We used Test of Existential Motivations in Relationships, a 36-item instrument measuring the fulfilment of 4 fundamental motivations, together with measures of subjective well-being, positive self-attitude, alienation, and psychopathology, controlling for age, gender, and relationship length. Existential fulfilment in relationships showed theoretically predictable weak to moderate correlations with other study variables. Moderation analysis discovered several effects: 1) subjective happiness was more strongly associated with fulfilment in long-term relationships than in short-term ones, 2) psychopathology, self-understanding, and alienation in relationships were stronger predictors of fulfilment in relationships for older adults than for younger adults, 3) positive self-attitude was associated with fulfilment in relationships for males, but not for females. Self-attitude and alienation indicators remained significant predictors of existential fulfilment in relationships after psychopathology was controlled for. The findings are discussed in the context of existential analytic theory. Longitudinal studies are needed to uncover the underlying causal links, but the present findings support the validity of existential analytic approach to relationship quality.