Детерминанты цифрового развития субъектов РФ
In this paper, one of the technologies that have emerged on the wave of the Fourth Industrial (Digital) Revolution - Blochein, and possible prospects for implementation in the railway industry is considered. Like other digital technologies, it has great potential, so in the railway industry, Blockchine can provide high efficiency of processing and storing information.
The digitalization is seen as an irreversible destiny for the humankind, and distinguished scientists expect the future to be tightly connected and saturated with digital technologies (for instance, Lyotard 1998, Bell 1999, Lyon 2013 etc.). However, not much is known about critical shifts, which have oc- curred in social, cultural and economic domains, and the future perspectives of digitalization seem obscure.
The current article is aimed at describing the phenomenon of «digitalization» from socio- economic perspective and educing the main features of the digitalized society. The article includes two parts. Firstly, the historico-philosophical theory of French professor Pier Levy is considered in detail. P. Levy (1997, 1998) has set forward the theory of four anthropological spaces, which includes the «earth», «territory», «commerce» spaces and the modern «knowledge space».
The knowledge space we are living in is characterized by the mass usage of technological apps, the inclusion of humans in innovation networks, the rise in collective intelligence, the replacement of material relationship to the world by more epistemological one, the refusal of geographical references, and by the constant redefinitions of the human identity via adjusting to the changing and fragile envi- ronment, which is becoming more and more digitalized.
The second part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the impact of digitalization on the economic sphere. The latest book written by the economist Prof. Klaus Schwab «The Fourth Industrial Revolution» (2017) serves as a guide to the new digital economy. Klaus Schwab high- lights such characteristics of modern society, which in many respects goes in parallel with Levy`s theory, as interconnectedness, knowledge access, growing capabilities to storage and receipt information, constant transformation of the economic sector, global extension of the changes, the emergence of global society, and the collective future for all the people. Besides, Prof. Schwab highlights that in case of three industrial revolutions, which preceded the Fourth one (the 1st revolution of 1760th-1840th, the 2nd revolution of the late 19th-early 20th century, and the 3rd revolution of the 1960th-1990th), the main consequence of them was the growing mecha- nization of the work process but not the absolute automatization of it. That means that the Forth industrial revolution creates the base for the replacement of human employees by the digital apps in the sphere of physical work and even in some areas of knowledge economy, which creates risks for the future labor market and the future economy on the whole.
Within the framework of the digital economy development in Russia, one of important areas is «digital logistics/ supply chain». In the market of freight and passenger traffic the use of digital technologies gives a competitive advantage, therefore their implementation is becoming inevitable for the entire logistics industry. This article considers trends, advantages, prospects and barriers to the implementation of digital technologies in the Russian Federation; the main types of these technologies and their influence on logistics business processes efficiency. A scheme for digital technologies (Big Data, IoT (Internet of Things), Blockchain, Cloud Services, 3D Printing) using in the supply chain are also presented. This paper provides the analysis of digital technologies use impact and a methodology for assessing the relationship with the components of the model of total logistics costs (TLC) in supply chains. It should be noted that proposed TLC model does not only include logistics operations costs, but also the costs associated with complete customer satisfaction.The use of digital technologies in logistics makes it possible to increase efficiency,precision and speed of logistics operations, however it requires significant financial investments, personnel training, accounting long-term physical movement over long distances, problems of customs clearance and terminal handling of goods.
Today digitalization in insurance is one of the main trends, in which the whole world invests.
Humanitarian thought has not yet encountered such challenges as in our day. If biotechnology outlined the perspectives of “posthuman” personology, separating it from the anthropomorphic nature of a sane person, then digitalization and robotization of almost all spheres of social practice bring to the fore the idea of homodice - justifying the need for human existence. The article presents four blocks of challenges to humanitarian knowledge: (1) advances in medicine, prosthetics, transplantology and genetic engineering, which outlined the separation of a sane subject from traditional anthropomorphism (“posthuman” personology); (2) studies of the neuro-physiology of the brain, which advanced new arguments against free will; (3) costs of ill-considered propaganda of human rights; (4) digitization of virtually all socio-cultural practices - from economics and military affairs to the formation and functioning of power. It is digitalization that permeates all these “fields of problematization”, setting their common conceptual and technological platform. In this regard, the question arises of the humanitarian examination of modern technologies and the projects of education, communication and management implemented with their help. We are talking about the examination of not only the consequences or also the progress, or even the possibility of implementing such projects, but also their very need. An important task is the focus of such expertise, its criteria. Obviously, it cannot be directed only at the preservation of the biological species of homo sapiens and the conditions of its survival. Paradoxical choice arises in a situation where freedom and free will are questioned: which is more important - Homo or sapiens? It is time for a clear distinction between the concepts of humanism and humanitarian, including in the last and posthuman personology. If humanitarianism is the personology of the free spirit, then humanism seems to be a place next to economism and nationalism — as forms of limited humanitarianism. This wide range of problems requires understanding not only their content, also the methodology of the humanities, their perspectives for positioning in modern society.