Protesters as the “Challengers of the Status Quo” in Embedded Democracies: The Cases of Iceland, the United Kingdom, and the United States
This chapter analyses the nature of protests in Iceland, the United Kingdom and the United States in America from 2008 to 2016. We focus on the nature of these protests, forms of collective actions, main drivers of the protests and the resulting political changes. It allows us to determine that protests played the role of the challengers of the status quo — protested against the current political state in their countries and tried to develop alternatives by revoking practices of direct democ- racy, creating public spaces for discussions and promote their ideas among the broad public.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce findings of comparative analysis and various models based on cultural heritage resources to foster regional development.
Design/methodology/approach – Comparison of operational schemes, market positions and branding of three successful cultural heritage centers in Germany, Great Britain and Russia demonstrates a variety of regional development models based on cultural resources and tourism development, and reveals their advantages and disadvantages.
Findings – The paper evidences the potential of cultural resources and the tourism sector as drivers for regional development, and helps formulate basic recommendations for the Russian situation requiring elaboration of adequate financial and social instruments.
Originality/value – The paper provides a complex analysis of different operational models in three European countries with regard to specific national situations and specificity of heritage operational management.
Mass political protests in recent years, since the events of the "Arab Spring" 2010-2011 years, when citizens' political actions covered the Middle East and North Africa, and ending with the latest developments in Ukraine are an important factor of political changes. At the same time, once it has arisen, protests continue and preserve its influence on political developments in the US and Europe, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, Thailand and many other countries from all continents of the world. This allows some researchers speak of the emergence of a new phenomenon - the phenomenon of protest groups of individuals or communities protest (protest publics). The last are not only factors, but also the actors of political changes in modern polities that requires clarification of existing methodological approaches and research tools of political change, as well as the roles of the different driving forces (actors and factors) in the process.
This book examines the waves of protest that broke out in the 2010s as the collective actions of self-organized publics. Drawing on theories of publics/counter-publics and developing an analytical framework that allows the comparison of different country cases, this volume explores the transformation from spontaneous demonstrations, driven by civic outrage against injustice to more institutionalized forms of protest. Presenting comparative research and case studies on e.g. the Portuguese Generation in Trouble, the Arab Spring in Northern Africa, or Occupy Wall Street in the USA, the authors explore how protest publics emerge and evolve in very different ways – from creating many small citizen groups focused on particular projects to more articulated political agendas for both state and society. These protest publics have provoked and legitimized concrete socio-political changes, altering the balance of power in specific political spaces, and in some cases generating profound moments of instability that can lead both to revolutions and to peaceful transformations of political institutions.
The authors argue that this recent wave of protests is driven by a new type of social actor: self-organized publics. In some cases these protest publics can lead to democratic reform and redistributive policies, while in others they can produce destabilization, ethnic and nationalist populism, and authoritarianism. This book will help readers to better understand how seemingly spontaneous public events and protests evolve into meaningful, well-structured collective action and come to shape political processes in diverse regions of the globe.
The Sino-Russian relationship in 2015 may well be recalled by posterity as the year of the parade. On the 70th anniversary of the allied victory, Presidents Putin and Xi placed great importance on attending their counterpart’s respective military tributes to World War II victory-day celebrations, in the notable absence of other prominent global leaders. These memorials were important markers of the past, but perhaps more significantly, they served as indications of how the future Sino-Russian relationship is likely to be symbolized. For now, significant differences continue to define the fledgling partnership. This is not to suggest that the relationship does not hold critical importance to shaping the international order. On the contrary, leaders in both Russia and China have overcome long-standing hostilities and structural barriers to forge a larger shared economic, security, and institutional footprint on the edges of the world’s fastest-growing region. Many questions in this delicate tripartite interaction remain unresolved. However, by beginning to acknowledge and understand the respective Chinese and Russian perspectives presented here, we are better prepared to grasp the complicated foundation on which the uneasy triangle is presently built.
This paper tries to examine the recent wave of protests in India, specifically the case against corruption and the Delhi rape case with the very diverse constituents mobilizing together for the common ethical demands (e.g., dignity and the demand for the basic obligations of the state). This paper tries to understand the unique convergence and the incidental coalescing of diverse sections of society with the motley of social and spiritual organizations lock-stepping and underpinning this assertion of the invisible multitude, thus substituting the previous actors of sociopolitical mobilization along with a major shift in the modus operandi and repertoire of the protest movement.