Preface of 2014 XIV international symposium on problems of redundancy in information and control systems
Preface of 2014 XIV international symposium on problems of redundancy in information and control systems(Editorial)
A Triple Helix (TH) network of bi- and trilateral relations among universities, industries, and governments can be considered as an ecosystem in which uncertainty can be reduced when functions become synergetic. The functions are based on correlations among distributions of relations, and therefore latent. The correlations span a vector space in which two vectors (P and Q) can be used to represent forward “sending” and reflexive “receiving,” respectively. These two vectors can also be understood in terms of the generation versus reduction of uncertainty in the communication field that results from interactions among the three bi-lateral channels of communication. We specify a system of Lotka–Volterra equations between the vectors that can be solved. Redundancy generation can then be simulated and the results can be decomposed in terms of the TH components. Furthermore, we show that the strength and frequency of the relations are independent parameters in the model. Redundancy generation in TH arrangements can be decomposed using Fourier analysis of the time-series of empirical studies. As an example, the case of co-authorship relations in Japan is re-analyzed. The model allows us to interpret the sinusoidal functions of the Fourier analysis as representing redundancies.
The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations can first be considered as an institutional network. However, the correlations in the patterns of relations provide another topology: that of a vector space. Meanings are provided from positions in this latter topology and from the perspective of hindsight. Meanings can be shared, and sharing generates redundancy. Increasing redundancy provides new options and reduces uncertainty; reducing uncertainty improves the innovative climate, and the generation of options (redundancy) is crucial for innovation. The knowledge base provides an engine of the economy by evolving in terms of generating new options. The trade-off between the evolutionary generation of redundancy and the historical variation providing uncertainty can be measured as negative and positive information, respectively. In a number of studies of national systems of innovation (e.g., Sweden, Germany, Spain, China), this TH synergy indicator has been used to analyze regions and sectors in which uncertainty was significantly reduced. The quality of innovation systems can thus be quantified at different geographical scales and in terms of sectors such as high- and medium-tech manufacturing or knowledge-intensive services.
The study of interhuman communication requires a more complex framework than Claude E. Shannon's (1948) mathematical theory of communication because “information” is defined in the latter case as meaningless uncertainty. Assuming that meaning cannot be communicated, we extend Shannon's theory by defining mutual redundancy as a positional counterpart of the relational communication of information. Mutual redundancy indicates the surplus of meanings that can be provided to the exchanges in reflexive communications. The information is redundant because it is based on “pure sets” (i.e., without subtraction of mutual information in the overlaps). We show that in the three-dimensional case (e.g., of a triple helix of university–industry–government relations), mutual redundancy is equal to mutual information (Rxyz = Txyz); but when the dimensionality is even, the sign is different. We generalize to the measurement in N dimensions and proceed to the interpretation. Using Niklas Luhmann's (1984–1995) social systems theory and/or Anthony Giddens's (1979, 1984) structuration theory, mutual redundancy can be provided with an interpretation in the sociological case: Different meaning-processing structures code and decode with other algorithms. A surplus of (“absent”) options can then be generated that add to the redundancy. Luhmann's “functional (sub)systems” of expectations or Giddens's “rule-resource sets” are positioned mutually, but coupled operationally in events or “instantiated” in actions. Shannon-type information is generated by the mediation, but the “structures” are (re-)positioned toward one another as sets of (potentially counterfactual) expectations. The structural differences among the coding and decoding algorithms provide a source of additional options in reflexive and anticipatory communications.
In this paper we consider a problem of secured data transmission for low-power devices such as RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags or some other devices for Internet of Things (IoT) for which low power consumption plays significant role. In fact, the privacy aspect involved with technology of RFID and IoT could become a major issue in the perspective of a global adoption. We considered well-known McEliece cryptosystems both in classical case (based on Goppa Codes) and based on Quasi-Cyclic Moderate-Density Parity-Check Codes (QC-MDPC) as a major security element of small and low-power devices. We also estimate a trade-off between complexity and security level of suggested system.
XVI International Symposium "Problems of Redundancy in Information and Control Systems" is the conference that covers a wide area of aspects of information and communication systems. The main goal of the Symposium foundation is the reinforcement of cooperation between the representatives of various scientific schools, a possibility for the participants to get awareness of the latest scientific and technical achievements and sharing their experience with colleagues.
Cloud data storages are functioning in the presence of the risks of confidentiality, integrity, and availability related with the loss of information, denial of access for a long time, information leakage, conspiracy and technical failures. In this paper, we provide analysis of reliable, scalable, and confidential distributed data storage based on Multilevel Residue Number System (RNS) and Mignotte secret sharing scheme. We use real cloud providers and estimate characteristics such as the data redundancy, speed of data encoding, and decoding to cope with different user preferences. The analysis shows that the proposed storage scheme increases safety and reliability of traditional approaches and reduces data storage overheads by appropriate selection of RNS parameters.
The model of “Open Innovations” (OI) can be compared with the “Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations” (TH) as attempts to find surplus value in bringing industrial innovation closer to public R&D. Whereas the firm is central in the model of OI, the TH adds multi-centeredness: in addition to firms, universities and (e.g., regional) governments can take leading roles in innovation eco-systems. In addition to the (transversal) technology transfer at each moment of time, one can focus on the dynamics in the feedback loops. Under specifiable conditions, feedback loops can be turned into feedforward ones that drive innovation eco-systems towards self-organization and the auto-catalytic generation of new options. The generation of options can be more important than historical realizations (“best practices”) for the longer-term viability of knowledge-based innovation systems. A system without sufficient options, for example, is locked-in. The generation of redundancy—the Triple Helix indicator—can be used as a measure of unrealized but technologically feasible options given a historical configuration. Different coordination mechanisms (markets, policies, knowledge) provide different perspectives on the same information and thus generate redundancy. Increased redundancy not only stimulates innovation in an ecosystem by reducing the prevailing uncertainty; it also enhances the synergy in and innovativeness of an innovation system.