The kaleidoscope of language, ethnicity, and identity in Uzbekistan.
The historical and political situation of Uzbekistan created a unique context where language
and ethnicity do not completely overlap for all groups. The study focused on three groups of
Uzbeks: Uzbek Uzbek-speakers, Russian Russian-speakers, and Uzbek Russian-speakers. We
explored how national, ethnic, ethnolinguistic, and religious identities are associated with
interethnic friendship and romantic relationships in these three groups. Identities that are more
inclusive (national and ethnolinguistic) were associated with more positive interethnic
attitudes and practices, while the opposite was found for ethnic identity. The national, ethnic,
ethnolinguistic, and religious identities were strongest for Uzbek-speaking Uzbeks and
weakest for the Russian-speaking Russians. Our study demonstrated the relevance of a
profound knowledge of the local history and context to understand the role of the various
social identities for the groups in Uzbekistan.