Individual manipulability of majoritarian rules for one-dimensional preferences
The degree of individual manipulability of majoritarian aggregation procedures is evaluated for the case of one-dimensional positioning of alternatives and agents. The calculation of the degree of manipulability is performed for 3-5 alternatives. We find that the group of rules dominates all others in terms of the lowest share of all manipulable profiles, and for some extensions gives even the zero level manipulability.
In this article detection of the manipulative potential of the concepts ‘tolerance’ and ‘political correctness’ are described on the example of federal and regional publications of the newspaper ‘Коммерсантъ’. Manipulative character of these social regulators is shown in the analysis of language means and ways of estimated interpretation by authors of newspaper articles with the paradoxical manifestation of tolerance and political correctness.
Various Condorcet consistent social choice functions based on majority rule (tournament solutions) are considered in the general case, when ties are allowed: the core, the weak and strong top cycle sets, versions of the uncovered and minimal weakly stable sets, the uncaptured set, the untrapped set, classes of k-stable alternatives and k-stable sets. The main focus of the paper is to construct a unified matrix-vector representation of a tournament solution in order to get a convenient algorithm for its calculation. New versions of some solutions are also proposed.
The author believes that today propaganda is a two way mechanism of communication. In addition to imposing and informational pressure, it involves the formation of public opinion on the basis of awareness of the benefits of the proposed policy for the society. Propaganda is not only a tool of ideology, but also an independent element in the overall structure of the ideological system, especially in conditions of Soviet "idiocracy". Therefore all attempts of Western political science and sociology to separate propaganda and education do not work on the example of Soviet reality.
Procedures aggregating individual preferences into a collective choice differ in their vulnerability to manipulations. To measure it, one may consider the share of preference profiles where manipulation is possible in the total number of profiles, which is called Nitzan-Kelly's index of manipulability. The problem of manipulability can be considered in different probability models. There are three models based on anonymity and neutrality: impartial culture model (IC), impartial anonymous culture model (IAC), and impartial anonymous and neutral culture model (IANC). In contrast to the first two models, the IANC model, which is based on anonymity and neutrality axioms, has not been widely studied. In addition, there were no attempts to derive the difference of probabilities (such as Nitzan-Kelly's index) in IC and IANC analytically. We solve this problem and show in which cases the upper bound of this difference is high enough, and in which cases it is almost zero. These results enable us to simplify the computation of indices.
Eine politische Ordnung gilt als legitim, wenn die Burger sie anerkennen und bereit sind, den Entscheidungen der Herrschenden Folge zu leisten. Diese Bereitschaft wird gewohnlich als Ergebnus einer bewussten und freien Entscheidung verstanden. Dies ist keineswegs immer so. Sie kahn auch auf Gewakt, Zwang oder Terror beruhen. Autoritare Ordungen bedienen sich heute anderer Methoden. Machpraktiken wie Beeinflussung, Imitation und Manipulation sowie die Verfugungsgewalt der Herrschenden uber die zentralen Apparate zur Reproduktion inrer Hegemonoe wie das Bildungssystem, die Medien oder die Armee spielen eine zentrale Rolle, um Legititat zu erzielen.
The article is devoted to the development of the principles of communicative strategies typology construction which is considered to be a method of scientific research of individuals' communicative interaction.
Conference Proceedings report findings presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the National Association of Teachers of English in Russia held in Voronezh in April, 2014. The proceedings might be useful for English language teachersworking at different levels - from University to kindergarten. linguists, interpreters and translators, as well as students and postgraduates majoring in EFL, linguistics and cultural studies.