«Мамалансер» как проявление идентичности на рынке самостоятельной Интернет-занятости
This paper is devoted to the contradiction between the regulation of labor relations and real practices of work. The modern labor market is characterized by its decentralization and destandardization, active introduction of the latest information technologies, automation and robotization of a number of production processes. In these conditions, state regulation faces serious difficulties caused by the irrelevance of certain legal technologies and the need for rapid creation and constant updating of new ones. The basis for this study was such a modern form of employment as Internet employment, which has a high degree of variability.
The active development and expansion of information technologies in society led to the formation of a new social and labor structure characterized by innovative forms of employment. The emergence of new forms of labor activity, different from those in the industrial era, raises the issues of their functioning, problematization and lacks. This paper focuses on e-work as a new atypical form of employment based on the achievements of information and communication technologies, when the Internet acts as a link between an employer and an employee. Like other innovations e-work initially spreads among a small number of “innovators”, gradually attracting a wider community. At this stage the legislative base is being formed, which allows protecting participants’ labor rights, as well as providing their social and pension insurance. Another important problem is the social attitude towards such employment form and the stigmatization of Internet workers, especially on behalf of relatives and friends. The challenges arising in the development of this new employment form are being gradually overcome, and problematic areas are turned into a target. Considering various factors enables to answer the question about the deformed state of this labor activity and highlights positive trends in its institutionalization.
In the industrial era, work was the main activity for a person, determining its status in society, image and lifestyle, which undoubtedly influenced the formation of a certain notion of "good" and "bad" work, of prestigious and popular professions, and as a consequence, image of the "traditional" form of labor.
In this paper, the problem of gender identity among e-workers is considered. The Internet market is a specific structure, where there is an opportunity to both preserve almost complete anonymity and arbitrary self-presentation. Due to existing prejudices of employers on the one hand and high competition with other Internet workers are forced to adjust their self-presentation, depending on the wishes of customers, in order to obtain more orders.
This paper discusses the basic stages of formation and characteristics of national labor UK legislation affecting the regulation of online employment and the impact on it of norms of the "European Framework Agreement on Telework» ( "European Framework agreement on telework") - the document by the European Council adopted in 2002 as a result of a dialogue with the main European social partners.Each European country has chosen its way of implementation of the European framework agreement according to their labor laws. In this work the author considers a unique way of the UK. The research methods include the analysis of the legal framework of Great Britain and the European Union, Russian and foreign scientific literature as well as sociological and statistical studies. As part of this work the author has defined the basic stages of formation of the Internet standards of employment regulation (Telework) in the UK and has marked national characteristics of the process. The author of the article has also highlighted the role of national and supranational laws in the formation of labor legislation in the field of Internet regulation of employment.